Horticulture 1 Media and Soils
Terms in this set (89)
The "side view" of soil. Looks at the horizons, or layers, of soil
What is another name for soil layers?
All soil profiles do not have the same number or level of _______.
O Horizon -
Rich soil found where a plant cover has been in place for an extended time
O Horizon is rich in what?
O Horizon is rich in organic matter in various _____ ___ _____.
stages of decomposition
What is the most fertile layer in the soil profile?
Why is the A Horizon brown?
due to the organic matter in the soil.
Is the topsoil and most fertile in the absence of an O horizon.
What lives in the A Horizon?
earthworms and soil organisms.
What color is the A horizon?
It is brown in color
What color is the O horizon?
It is dark (brown/black) in color
What do we call the B Horizon?
What type of soil is in the B horizon (what soil texture is present in the highest amount)?
clayey soil that has a high mineral content
What color is the B horizon?
usually brown or reddish
Why is the B horizon brown or reddish?
due to the large amount of clay.
What is the C Horizon made up of?
C Horizon consists mainly of clumps of___________.
What is the R Horizon made up of?
Can you dig through the R horizon by hand?
cannot be dug by hand and very few roots can penetrate the bedrock.
Soil Structure -
Soil structure is how the soil particles fit together
Sandy soils typically have a ______ soil structure.
Silty soils have a ________ soil structure.
Clayey soils have a ______________ structure.
blocky or platy
Which soil structure is the best?
How much sand, silt, and clay is present in the soil
_____ has the largest particles.
Silt has ______ sized particles.
Clay has the ________ sized particles.
Loam has almost equal parts of ___________________.
sand, silt and clay.
Soil pH ranges from _______.
________________is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of soils.
__________(low pH) is considered an acid soil.
_____ will raise the pH value in soils (make the soil less acidic).
__________________ will lower the pH value in soils (make the soil more acidic).
Calcium or sulfur
The ideal pH value for vegetable garden soils are ______.
5.5 to 7.0.
________ is the rate at which water moves through the soil.
__________ is the ability of a soil to hold water for plant use.
Water holding capacity
_______is the amount of air space between soil particles.
___% of soil should be pore space which includes ___% water space and ___% air space.
50, 25, 25
____% of soil should be soil particles which include _____% mineral matter and ____% organic matter.
50, 45, 5
Soil sampling and testing is essential for an accurate __________ recommendation for growing plants.
How should you visualize the area that you want to soil sample?
Create a visual grid of the area to be planted. For gardens and landscapes, take 5-10 subsamples from the site to be evaluated.
When soil sampling gardens and landscapes, take ________ subsamples from the site to be evaluated.
What do you use to collect soil samples?
a stainless steel soil-sampling probe.
Take the surface sample to tillage depth or about ______inches for lawns and ______ inches for crops.
What should you do with soil SUB samples?
Mix the soil samples together.
What should you take out of your soil sample before shipping it?
any grass, rocks or other material besides soil
What should you do if you have unusual spots in your lawn or field?
Avoid them. Those areas need to be sent in a separate box.
What should you do when you are finished collecting your soil sample and it need to go to the lab?
Place soil samples in a box, which you can obtain from the County Extension Office along with Soil Sample Information sheet, send the box and information to Agronomic Division Soil Test Lab in Raleigh for a free soil test.
What are the different types of horticulture growing media?
Peat moss is _______ and has a ___________ pH.
organic, slightly acidic
Is partially decomposed material mined from the swamps.
Peat moss has good ______.
moisture holding properties.
Vermiculite is _______ and has a _______ pH.
inorganic, neutral to slightly alkaline
Is a light-weight mica mineral matter commonly used to start seed and cuttings.
Vermiculite holds _______.
Perlite is________and has a __________ pH.
inorganic, slightly alkaline
Is a natural volcanic material.
Perlite helps with soil ______ and ________.
soil aeration, drainage
Is dead plant or animal tissue.
Organic matter contains _______.
Is decayed organic matter.
Compost is used for ______ and ________.
soil conditioning and fertilizer.
Bark is _______ and has a________pH.
organic, slightly acid
Is larger matter added to some horticulture media to promote drainage.
Adding bark to a soilless mix usually makes the mix _______.
Bark is widely used in __________.
tree and shrub production.
Sphagnum is organic and is very acidic.
organic, very acidic
Is dehydrated remains of acid bog plants.
Sphagnum moss holds _________.
Sphagnum moss is commonly used to ______________.
line wire hanging baskets.
Advantages of horticultural soils (mixes that may or may not include soil)
1. The soil is sterile.
2. The pH is neutral for most commercial blends of media mixes.
3. The soil is disease and weed free.
4. It is good for starting disease sensitive seeds (tomato).
5. It is easy to control the nutrient content of the soil.
6. It improves crop uniformity.
7. It is easy to create a horticulture soil for particular plant needs.
Disadvantages of horticultural soils.
1. It is expensive.
2. It is light weight.
Additional materials used in soilless media mixes.
Sawdust, wood shavings
Wood shavings and sawdust have a ____________.
high carbon to nitrogen ratio.
Wood shavings and sawdust make _________________.
nitrogen unavailable for plant use.
Organic materials must be well rotted or decomposed to avoid problems with _______________.
A sandy soil may not have an "O" horizon if it has been _________________________.
Why might a soil horizon be missing?
due to erosion or cultivation
Most typical soils in North Carolina will have a minimum of _________________.
the A, B and C or R horizons.
Plants have good root development in which soil structure?
How does water move through a granular soil?
Water movement is at an appropriate rate - doesn't stay to wet or too dry.
Sandy soils have ______ moisture and nutrient holding capacity.
Silt has a _____ moisture and nutrient holding capacity.
Clayey soils have ______ water and nutrient holding capacity.
What is the ideal texture for most non container outside plants?
______ indicates a neutral soil.
___________(high pH) is considered an alkaline soil.