17 terms

Genetics

STUDY
PLAY
gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
allele
A variation of a single gene that controls an inherited characteristic.
homozygous
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
genotype
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
phenotype
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
dominant
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
recessive
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
heredity
Passing of traits from parents to offspring
law of independent assortment
states that genes for different traits are separated independently during the formation of gametes. (traits are not "linked")
law of segregation
states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
law of dominance
states the dominant trait is always expressed over the recessive trait if its allele is present.
complete dominance
A pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.
incomplete dominance
A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits. (ex. pink flowers)
codominance
A pattern of inheritance in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed. (ex. roan cows)
homologous chromosomes
Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same shape and same genes.
sister chromatids
Replicated forms of a chromosome (identical) joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...