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BIO311D Review Questions Exam 3
Terms in this set (25)
What is the pre-prophase band composed of?
What do shoot apical meristems do?
determines what cells become (shoot or root) - plant version of stem cells but they continue to differentiate throughout the plant's life
What do gibberellins do?
assists in stem elongation, fruit growth, and germination
What are charophytes and what do they tell us about modern-day plants?
Ancestral charophytes are green algae and modern day plants are derived from them - developed vascular systems and seed
What does the hypothalamus do?
It receives regulating messages from the body and produces hormones to maintain equilibrium - creates neurohormones like GnRH, vasopressin, oxytocin, etc.
What is the difference between C4 and CAM plants?
Both plants help in the reduction of photorespiration, but C4 separates carbon fixation and production of sugars spatially whereas CAM plants separate these processes temporally
What is the Calvin cycle?
It is the second step of photosynthesis in which ATP production from the light reaction and carbon dioxide is used to produce sugars, fatty/amino acids, and starch for storage
What are the advantages of complex body plans compared to simple body plans?
complex body plans have external skin and skeleton to protect body organs, they have a filtration system that regulate internal fluids surrounding cells, allow for digestion of molecules and converting them into energy, ability to maintain homeostasis, and sensory organs allow for comprehension of external influences
How did the first land plants survive without true roots or leaves?
They could have developed mutualistic relationships with fungi, large surface area allows for passing nutrients from cell to cell, and close proximity to water allows absorption of nutrients
What are the differences between spores and seeds?
spores: haploid, unicellular, asexual and are the first step in producing gametophytes
seeds: diploid, multicellular, sexual and are a part of the sporophyte phase
seeds have a protective outer covering, they can lay dormant for longer periods, and contain an endosperm - their own personal supply of nutrients
What is a tangled-1 mutant?
Its a mutation that affects the longitudinal divisions in plant cells; causes the cells to grow crooked and curved
What does each part of the flower do?
sepals: enclose and protect the petals before budding
petals: attract pollinators
stamen: consists of the filament and anthers - produces the microspores that become the pollen grain (male gametophyte)
carpels: consists of the stigma, stye, ovary, and ovules that contain megaspores (female gametophyte)
What is the basal metabolic rate?
the rate at which energy is expended to metabolize proteins and carbs and etc.
What is the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids?
Essential amino acids have to obtained from food intake whereas nonessential amino acids can be produced from the body
What is the difference between vitamins and minerals?
vitamins: organic molecules obtained from vegetables, fruits and animal foods, two categories (lipid-soluble and water-soluble)
minerals: inorganic molecules obtained from the soil and water, two categories (macro and micro)
macro-minerals: magnesium, zinc, calcium, potassium, and iron
What are the three types of connective tissue and what are examples of each?
collagenous: strength and structure
reticular: connects connective tissue to adjacent tissue
elastic: maintains elasticity
What are the two ways to make an ATP molecule from ADP?
How do the chemical process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration differ?
Products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cellular respiration; acidity increases inside of the mitochondria whereas for photosynthesis, acidity increases outside of the thylakoid respiration
Which hormones are released from the pituitary gland, what do they do and how?
Pituitary glands release gonadotropins, LH and FSH that promotes sex organs like the ovaries and testes to produce sex hormones (testosterone/estrogen/progesterone)
What is the difference between peptides and steroids?
Peptides are water-soluble and binds to receptors of cells to trigger signal transduction pathway and steroids are lipid-soluble and can enter through the phospholipid bilayer and directly initiate change
What is the difference between oxidation and reduction?
Oxidation is losing electrons whereas reduction is gaining electrons
Why do plant biologists prefer the term "plant growth hormone"?
plants don't have a circulatory system in which hormones can travel throughout the plant body
some plant growth hormones are typically released in concentrations about 1000x greater than regular hormones
some plant growth hormones typically only act locally
What is ATP? What happens to ATP as the molecule gains and loses energy?
ATP is a nucleotide - the ATP loses energy when phosphate is detached and vice versa
What are the four stages of food processing?
ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion
What are the 3 things an animal's diet must supply?
Essential nutrients - (minerals, vitamins, fatty acids)
Organic molecules - carbon and nitrogen
Chemical Energy - ATP from carbs and proteins
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