22 terms

psych

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Fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Central route to persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Peripheral route to persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Roles
the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
Cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
Social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
Social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
Group Think
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
The other-race effect
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races
Scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression
Biopsychosocial influences on aggression
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Mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
Biopsychosocial influences on attraction
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What contributes to lasting, companionate love
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Altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Social traps
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
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