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How the genetic instructions specify the traits encoded in the DNA. How genetic variations provides the basis for biological evolution through natural selection. And the evidence for evolution of life on Earth.
Terms in this set (24)
The inherited genes of an organism for a specific trait - Tt. The genes that produce a phenotype.
An organism's inherited physical appearance - What it looks like. Traits you can see, count, and measure.
A section of a chromosome made up of DNA that carries information that determines an inherited trait of an organism
Deoxyribonucleic acid. The genetic material of cells that carries all their genetic code that is required to make an organism and keep it alive.
A rod-shaped structure made of tightly coiled-up DNA and protein found in the nucleus of a cell
Different forms of a gene
Having identical alleles for a single trait. (TT or tt)
Having 2 different alleles for a single trait. (Tt or Bb)
A type of reproduction involving only one parent in which the parent cell copies its DNA and divides in two, giving one copy of all its DNA to both new daughter cells. (Most common in bacteria and protists) This is how the cells in your body help you grow and repair dead/damaged cells.
A type of reproduction requiring two parents making gametes (sperm/egg cell) with 1/2 of their full chromosome number. When the sperm and the egg combine in fertilization, the offspring get a full set of chromosomes, 1/2 from their mother, and 1/2 from their father. In humans, 23 chromosomes from Mom + 23 chromosomes from Dad = 46 chromosomes.
Traits that always show in a person even if only one gene of the pair is inherited for the trait
Traits that typically do not show in a person unless both genes for the trait are inherited
experimented with garden peas and discovered the mechanism of heredity. showed that physical units of heredity came in pairs (one unit from each parent), heredity was particulate, variation was discontinuous rather than continuous
A mistake or change in the genetic code that can occur because of environmental reasons or over long periods of time as part of evolution
The study of heredity
A set of traits an organism receives from its parents.
An organism's physical feature, determined by a gene that is passed from parents to offspring.
A trait passed on from parent to offspring (eye color)
A trait resulting from the environment/behaviors (pierced ears, riding a bike)
An organism's sex cell (male sperm or female egg), which contains half the normal full number of chromosomes needed to make an organism. These special reproductive cells are made only in the sex organs during meiosis.
The division and reduction of chromosomes in gametes, that results in the production of sperm and eggs with half the number of chromosomes.
The control center of the cell, where all the DNA, (packaged into genes that make up chromosomes) is contained.
Chromosomes that determine an organism's sex. Human females have XX; males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.
Mating organisms with the best traits to ensure that those desirable traits get passed on to the offspring. (This is done with plants and animals)
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