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Terms in this set (91)
1. we were born to run
2. we were born to eat more calories than needed
What are the 2 major problems that the history of our species has created for the new way we live in the 21st century?
because food supplies weren't always consistent, so we needed to be able to put on fat in case we went through a dry spell
why were we born to eat more calories than needed?
1. the inactivity crisis
2. overabundance of food crisis
what are the 2 biggest health crises we face today?
How many hours a week do experts in human evolution indicate that our long ago ancestors worked hunting and gathering and on other basic necessities to wrest a living from their environments?
how long was the paleolithic period?
Did early human societies, faced with the struggle to survive, have time to play?
Most scholars argue that human cultures developed gender divisions characterized by "man the hunter" and "woman, the gatherer and mother" because...
A. Men are inherently better athletes than women
B. Men have higher pain tolerances and far better endurance capacities than women
C. Men were in charge, and they were all sexists
D. Men have an instinctual advantage in following directions which helped them to find prey
E. Women were, in evolutionary terms, more valuable than men
valuable for propagating the species ; men are expendable
Why were women so valuable in the paleolithic period ? (2)
Hunting and War; Religion
2 of the sources for the origin of sport and physical education
skill and knowledge as well as the demonstration of that skill and ability in a public setting
they lived in communities of about 25 people and the elders would take the younger ones out and teach them how to make spears and hunt
in the paleolithic era, what did tribal bands have to do with physical education athletics?
animals were so big that they needed many men to help work on the exhaustion and execution of the animal
why can hunting in the paleolithic era be related to team sports?
it took days for the humans to track down the animal to exhaustion which was a test for physical prowess
why can hunting in the paleolithic era be related to athletic prowess?
the trophy they would bring home would be the animal meat because the women only wanted the men that could provide for them; it also showed they couldn't be messed with
how was being a warrior in the paleolithic era similar to rewards in athletics today? (2)
that she was able to have a lot of children and take care of them all
how was prowess shown by a woman in the paleolithic era?
the contest between human and animal
who was the contest between in the paleolithic era?
teamwork, prowess, gender, warrior prowess, contest, tribal bands
what are 5 ways in which the people of the paleolithic era showed that being hunters and warriors were really just the ancient form of athletes?
it was a way to win favor with the gods, and athletic performance were religious rituals
2 ways in which religion was the origin of sport and physical education in the paleolithic era?
What does paleolithic mean?
around 7000 B.C.E, the invention of agriculture came around in the neolithic era
When and why did the paleolithic environment change?
what does neolithic mean?
domestication of plants and animals
what did we shift from hunting and gathering to, in the neolithic era?
what did we shift from nomadic movement to, in the neolithic era?
population growth, urban centers, and monumental architecture
What arose in teh neolithic era governmentally? (3 things)
because you could stay sedentary and you didn't have to follow herds; also had more of a consistent food supply
Why was it easier to have more kids in the neolithic era? (2)
1. developed record keeping and math
2. rise of trade and commerce-economics
3. new forms of social and political orgs
in what ways was a civilization growing in the neolithic era? (3)
moving from living amongst a family to a city, people became specialized in a role, and states were made
in the neolithic eras, what were ways in which the social and political orgs were arising? (3)
because before the tribe had only been about 25 people, but now there were hundreds that you didn't have personal connections with
why was it significant that people moved from living amongst a family to a city?
people had to be able to know how to do everything before, but now specializations could be divided amongst the people
how was it a change that people were specializing in roles in the neolithic era?
because it both unified and divided people with names
why was it significant that states were birthed in the neolithic era?
West Africa, Indus Valley of India, northeastern China, MesoAmérica, Peru, the Near East
What were the 6 locations that were center of early human civilization
With the help of the increased food supplies, what was true for the Neolithic era?
A. With more consistent food supplies, people grew taller
B. With more consistent food supplies, people ate more nutritious foods
C. With more consistent food supplies, people contracted less disease
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
more disease, less nutritious foods, we moved less, and we were growing shorter
Why was the health, wellness, and physical activity a paradox for the change of the neolithic era? (4)
they were living in cities
why did the people of the neolithic era contract more diseases?
we had to add sugar, salt, fermentation, and processing to our food so that we could preserve them over the winter
why were we eating less nutritious foods in the neolithic era? (4)
we were working on farms which was less leisurely but did not require long endurance running
why were we moving less in the neolithic era?
we were wealthier, but we worked much harder because agriculture requires a lot of labor
how was the income of money in the neolithic era? what was the implication?
we were growing shorter
how did we know we weren't as healthy in the neolithic era?
no; their sociality and smarts
Were our ancestors stronger or swifter than either the prey they hunted or the predators they sought to escape? if not, what did they use? (2)
having free hands, regulating our body temp, and having a vision
What unique characteristics did they have that allowed them to become "endurance predators"? (3)
sweating, hair on our head to protect us from sun but otherwise naked, bipedal which limits exposure to the sun
what are the mechanisms in which humans use to regulate our body temperature? (3)
to make tools
why is it beneficial for humans to have free hands?
to get food, we're not faster than our predators, so we defended against them using group behaviors
Did early humans run to escape predators or to get food? why?
its a recreation of the long hunt we had thousands of years ago so we are still fulfilling the visions we had long ago
How does Heinrich connect the evolution of human endurance running to the modern mania for sport?
mid-day because the sprinter animals would get too hot and have to stop and cool off, leaving humans to alone to hunt
When (what time of day) were early humans the strongest hunters? Why?
because even though we don't have the prize yet, we are able to hold the vision in our mind as motivation to keep going -fueled by passion to keep us going for long periods of time
why is it advantageous as humans to have a vision?
the females got choose their mates and they chose based on who could provide the best kills
How did female "sexual selection" reinforce the evolution of endurance hunters?
1. we are all african genetically
2. we are all designed to be endurance runners
According to Epstein, our genes tell us two important things about all of humanity? What are those two things? What are we?
A woman who lived in sub-Saharan Africa aroud 150,000 years ago. We all share some of her mitochondrial DNA because we all inherit it from out mothers. Because of this, we can all trace our ancestry to a single population in east central Africa
it's a very common gene, so it doesn't make that much of an effect
How many of us have the speed gene? what does this mean?
probably no one
How many of us have all 23 genes required to make us the perfect distance runner?
1. distance running is their national pastime, so it's the sport they train for
2. live in poorer areas, so they had to run to and from school everyday
3. Kenya is elevated, so they grew up adapted to running in harder areas
What about the Kenyans and Jamaicans youth spurred their ability in running? (3 things)
not really; genes aren't racially distributed, so it's mostly nurture
Do genetic advantages, "sports genes" explain the dominance of Jamaican sprinters and Kenyan distance runners? why or why not?
1700's to present
What is the time period of the Industrial-Technological Revolution?
from farm to factory
what were the work transformations that happened between the neolithic and industrial-technological revolution
they were able to get a handle on disease due to development of medicine and sanitation
what were the disease transformations that happened between the neolithic and industrial-technological revolution (2)
working on a farm was hard and diverse work, while working in a factory just required one to stand and repeatedly use a machine
what were the body usage transformations that happened between the neolithic and industrial-technological revolution
communication, transportation, standards of living, and longer lifespans
what was improved in the industrial-technological revolution? (4)
How did the Industrial-Technological Revolution change human bodies?
A. people grew taller
B. All of these
C. None of the answers
D. People grew older
E. People grew heavier
enormous growth from better health care and higher standards of living
What kind of impact did the industrial revolution have on the population? why (2)?
an overabundance of food; we don't have a good distribution system and we have the genetic blueprint to over indulge
What kind of impact did the industrial-technological revolution have on the supply of food? what are the problems?(2)
we became wealthier while enjoying more leisure time from the use of machinery
what kind of impact did the industrial-technological revolution have on our economics?
we are not using it move our bodies, instead we are using it to watch TV
in the industrial-technological revolution, what is the problem with our leisure time?
we grow older, we grow taller, and we grow fatter
Anthropometrically, how has the human body been impacted by the industrial-technological revolution? (3)
that they have running so ingrained in their everyday lifestyle, and this is why they're so good at it
What can we learn in the industrial-technological revolution from seeing the historical trends of Kenyan runners?
give them the choice of playing games like basketball
How do we get modern people to increase their movement?
peloton, fitbit, apple watch; recreates the long hunt with technology
what kinds of things has the industrial-technological revolution provided us that gives us novel opportunities to move(3)? why do they intrigue us?
are the people who watch sports on TV more or less sedentary than those who don't
What did the foot runners symbolize about the new, post-revolutionary Mexico?
an effort to incorporate the nation's many indigenous peoples into the cultural and political mainstream of Mexican life.
a chance to get their race in the Olympics
What did Mexico want from the "foot runners'" performance in Texas?
foot runners or runners with balls
What did the Americans say the name Tamarhumara translated to? (2 names)
the basic political unit- a fortified independent city-state which lived off the wealth of its craftsmen and traders from the surplus of agriculture
win glory for the city-states and train warriors for their armies
what role did sport and physical education play in the polis? (2)
they did it for the money and fame
Did ancient Greek athletes care about winning, or did they prefer to take part in a spirit of fair play whether they finished first or last?
1. celebrated the best athlete
2. took athletes from other polis and paid them more more
3. didn't play for the love, they wanted money and status
What are similarities between Greek sports and modern sports? (3)
1. Greeks weren't interested in distance running
2. no team sports
3. women weren't allowed to compete or to spectate
4. they didn't care about 2nd or 3rd place
5. no weight class or leveling the playing field
6. based it on religion and rituals
7. naked as they competed
What are the differences between Greek sports and modern sports ? (7)
today, PE isn't just about celebrating the varsity athlete, it's still about training everyone like the Greeks wanted for their armies
How do Greek ideas about sport and physical education still cast a shadow over the modern world?
celebration of consumerism
What kind of holiday is "Super Bowl Sunday"?
#1 shared experience
Where does the Super Bowl rank in pantheon of American holidays?
What technology has greatly magnified the power of the Super Bowl?
has patriotic rituals and events, but it's not centered around celebrating patriotism or religion like other holidays
In what specific way is the super bowl different from older, more established holidays?
exercise or wrestling ground attached to the gymnaisa in ancient greece
What city in particular fought the image of "Rustbelt" decay through its Super Bowl dynasty?
what type of cities does the NFL usually prefer to host the Super Bowl?
see it as a way to connect themselves with the common folk
how have politicians used the Super Bowl to promote their careers?
Currently, he is the president of Liberia. He was a wealthy and famous soccer player (who originated from Liberia) that came back to Liberia after playing in Europe
the Lone Star
the nickname for the national soccer team
he didn't choose a side, he just wanted to unify his nation and make peace
What is Weah's relationship with the government of Liberia?
yes, they believe the soccer team symbolized unity because it was the only thing they all could be proud of. Weah took his team to his house where the horrible things to his family happened as a symbol to overcome problems
Do Liberian's believe in sport can change their civil war-raged nation? if so, give an example?
A former government minister who would be elected president of Liberia in 1997.