Music History Early-Music Test
Terms in this set (128)
How many pieces of music do we have from before 300?
Why don't we have more music from ancient Greece?
1) Destroyed because it was pagan, 2) Oral tradition, 3) Papyrus (paper) deteriorates.
What are the main Greek Instruments?
The harp, the aulos (predecessor of the oboe), the Kithara (lyre), and percussion.
What kind of people performed music in ancient Greece?
All men. You were expected to be able to play instruments if you were learned.
What is the doctrine of Ethos?
"If you listen to the wrong type of music, you'll become the wrong type of person."
How did Greeks feel about how much music someone listens to?
Too much=effeminate, too little=barbaric.
True or false: Most of Greek music was improvised.
Who created Acoustic Theory?
Approximately when was Pythagoras around?
True of false: Greeks didn't use perfect intervals, they used tetrachords.
What should you remember about shepherds?
They're not necessarily a symbol of Jesus. That was a Roman idea.
When the Roman Empire fell, what rose in its place?
When did the Roman Empire fall?
Who was the 1st Holy Roman Emperor?
Charlemagne (800 AD)
What is Liturgy?
A series of beliefs and teachings. A body of texts/rites.
What is Charlemagne known for?
Became 1st Holy Roman Emperor in 800, controlled people through the Church, united people by having every sing in Latin only.
What is feudalism?
An economic and social approach. 10% were Nobility and spoke Latin. 10% were Clergy and spoke Latin (and could read and write), and 80% were peasants.
When did the Catholic church leave Latin behind?
What is a cantor?
A music leader.
What did the Philosopher Boethius do?
First guy to mention a Cantor, and wrote a book about music called De Institutione de Musica.
What are the three types of music?
Musica Mundana (gravity), Musica Humana (connects people), Musica Instrumentalists (the only kind you can hear).
What are the years of the Medieval/Dark Ages?
Why are the years 500-1400 called the Medieval/Dark Ages?
They were dark in terms of learning for commoners.
How would you describe art and music in the Medieval/Dark Ages?
Not detailed. About the symbolism, not accurate depictions. About the TEXT, and nothing else.
When was Pope Gregory the First in charge?
What legend did Charlemagne make up to get everyone to sing in Latin?
That this collection of songs was whispered to Pope Gregory by a dove.
What is the divine office?
Eight times a day, you go pray and sing.
What are the three types of music sung in the divine office?
Matins (3 of the 8 times), Lauds, Vespers(the best music).
Describe the two types of mass.
Proper and Ordinary. Proper songs change based on calendar/holidays, ex. Hallelujah. Ordinary songs are sung all the time, ex. Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei.
Book of Common Chants
What's the Requiem mass?
Mass for the dead
What are the types of Gregorian Chant?
Biblical/Non-biblical. Poetry/Prose. Direct/Responsorial/Antiphonal.
What is direct chant?
Most common, one choir singing.
What is responsorial chant?
Canter. The choir sings, and then the congregation repeats.
What is antiphonal chant?
Choir against choir, call and response.
What shape are chapels often built in?
What years make up Oral Tradition?
When did music begin to be written down?
What was the first style of notation used?
What are the three classifications of church songs? (Syllable wise)
1) Syllabic, 1 note per syllable, 2) Neumatic, 2-6 notes per syllable, 3) Melismatic, many notes per syllable.
Tell me about Kyrie.
Contains only three words: Kyrie Eliason, Christe Eliason. Is always Melismatic.
Tell me about Credo.
Is the equivalent of the LDS Articles of Faith. Is almost always Syllabic.
What's the most sung word in the history of the world?
What's the French term for the 1300s?
Ars Nova (New Art)
What's the Italian term for the 1300s?
Trecento (Three hundred)
What's the cousin of the Lyre?
What are the three types of organs?
Portative (one hand pumps, the other plays the keys), Bellows, and Pipes
What are the years of the Gothic Period?
What's are the characteristics of Gothic Architecture?
Blocky, not especially beautiful, pointed arches. (The music doesn't relate to the text.)
Tell me all about Hildegard Von Bingen.
She was a German Abbess around the 1100's. She composed a Liturgical Drama called Ordo Virtutum.
Tell me all about Ordo Virtutum.
Composed by Hildegard Von Bingen. It's a Liturgical Drama (like a churchy opera) comprised of 82 songs. Has many characters with names like Hope, Charity, and Chastity. It was one of the first times a story was set to song.
Who was Guido of Arezzo?
The first composer we know and the #1 guy of the era. He replaced Neumatic Notation with the staff we now use. Invented solfege and the Guidonian Hand.
What city became the center of music around 1200?
Who were the first two big composers in Paris?
Leonin and Perotin
What's the name of the famous religious school in Paris?
The Notre Dame Cathedral
What year was the cornerstone of Notre Dame laid?
Tell me about Carmina Burana.
A non-religious piece of music composed by goliards (church students). Found a couple hundred years ago in a German Monastery.
What are the three classes of musicians?
Goliards, Jongleurs, and Troubadours.
Tell me a little bit about goliards.
[Clergy] They were students of the church that left behind 200+ poems of a lewd, satirical, and disrespectful nature.
Tell me a little bit about Jongleurs/Minstrels.
They were poor traveling musicians, not composers.
Tell me a little bit about Troubadours/Trouveres.
They were songwriters from nobility that didn't travel. Troubadours=south, Trouveres=north.
How is organum different than Plainchant?
It has at least one additional voice.
What's parallel organum?
Organum with two voices moving in parallel motion. (The added voice is beneath the chant.)
What's contrapuntal organum?
Organum with two voices moving in contrary motion. (The added voice is now above the chant.)
True or false: Leonin was one of the first students at Notre Dame.
What type of music did Leonin begin composing at Notre Dame?
Melismatic Organum Duplum
What was new with Perotin's music?
Had 4 voices, was rhythmic, and his pieces were much longer than anything prior.
Who came up with church modes?
Guido of Arezzo
True or false: There was also such a thing as Rhythmic Modes.
What's a clausula?
A tail added to organum consisting of all new material, often in the form of discant.
Was less churchy because it didn't come from God to a dove to Pope Gregory...it was just from Pope Taylor's brain.
When did the Fuedal System break down and the Merchant Class come into existence?
What does polytextual mean?
Has multiple texts, often in different languages.
Religious music in Latin that is NOT part of the mass. Is an original composition and is often "dance-y". Based on a Clausula. Usually 2/3 voices.
Tell me about the Black Plague.
Also know as the Bubonic Plague. Happened in the 1300s. Wiped out 30-50% of the population. Was spread via black rats.
What was Dante's Divine Comedy?
An Italian epic poem in 3 parts. Dante travels through the 7 levels of hell. There begins to be snarkiness towards the church.
Tell me about Canterbury Tales.
A collection of English stories about pilgrimage from London to Canterbury. Written by Chaucer.
Who are the two most important guys of Ars Nova?
Philippe De Vitry (1st guy) and Guillaume de Machaut (#1 guy)
Who coined the term Ars Nova?
Philippe De Vitry
A) Who was Philippe De Vitry? B) What musical thing did he bring about, and C) what's he famous for writing?
A) A French composer, music theorist, and writer, B) Duples, and C) Roman de Fauvel.
What's Roman de Fauvel?
A "naughty" epic poem about an ass that ends up taking over the throne. Has characters with names like Lust and Adultery.
What was the most important musical development in Ars Nova?
Duples. Everything before Ars Nova was based on 3 because of The Trinity.
A) Who was Guillaume de Machaut? B) What was his most important work?
A) He was the most important guy of the Ars Nova period. He was famous for writing both secular and non-secular music. He was important in the development of the motet. B) Messe de Notre Dame. It was the first complete setting of the mass by one person. Before him, a team of monk wrote the mass, so it was lacking continuitiy. Also, he didn't give God the credit for it.
What are the five Forme Fixes?
1. Virelais-syllabic and likeable, homophonic (French)
2. Ballades-homophonic (French)
3. Rondeaux-homophonic (French)
4. Ballate-homophonic (Italian) [Strophic]
5. Caccia-polyphonic (Italian) [A chase: one part is always a measure behind the other.]
Who was the leading composer of the Trecento?
Who was Francesco Landini?
He was a blind, italian composer. He didn't write any sacred music, played the portative organ, and was known for the Ballate and the Landini Cadence.
What's the term for music with accidentals and why was it invented?
Musica Ficta, to avoid "The Devil's Interval".
What are the two catchy and repititious Forme Fixes?
Ballata (created by Landini the blind composer), and Virelais (less catchy than Ballata).
What does non-idiomatic mean?
Means it doesn't matter what instrument plays the part. Music was non-idiomatic until the Baroque era.
What are the years of the Renaissance?
Which two cities were the center for music during the Renaissance?
North=Burgundy (aka Belgium), and South=Italy.
*Burgundy was the main place in the early ren.)
What's the name of the new form that got popular in 1250?
(Hint: Sumer is icumen in)
Who was John Dunstable and what made him special?
The first English composer. He lived in France in the 1400s. He used 3rds and 6ths which came to define the English Style.
What is Faux Bourdon?
An inverted bass line. French name, but English style.
Who was the #1 guy of the Early Renaissance?
Guillaume Du Fay
Also: (Main guy of Burgandy, wrote a lot in the courts.)
What's a hocket?
Like a hiccup. Early syncopation between 2 voices.
What's the literal translation of Cantus Firmus?
What's the Landini Cadence?
Who's the #1 guys of the Renaissance?
Josquin Des Prez
What was Josquin Des Pres known for?
Pervasive Imitation and sounding more "moving and emotional".
What's pervasive imitation?
Harmony created by entrance of voices.
What's the French word for song (usually about love)?
What does Renaissance mean?
True of false: Josquin Des Prez' music can be described as very orderly.
What happened in the 1540s that caused every one to throw out the old complicated music?
The Council of Trends
"You can still go to church, but man has a lot to offer. The body is beautiful."
What was the name of the big, power family of Italy during the Renaissance?
The Medici Family
What's a madrigal?
A new popular form in the 1500s. It employs chromaticism. 4-6 voices is the norm, and is very complicated.
Two versions: Italian and English. English Madrigal is copied from Italian Madrigal and ends up sounding like a hymn.
True or false: It isn't until the 20th century that such a high degree of chromaticism is employed in music again.
What's word painting?
Sun=high note, Storm=low note
Term for Italian Pop Song
Frottola (French Chanson)
ALSO: I-IV-V-I and homophonic
When was the Gutenberg printing press invented?
When did music printing become a thing?
What did Petrucci do?
Printed books of songs (called Odhecaton) to sell to wealthy people. ($$$)
What song is an example of an English Madrigal?
Now is the Month of Maying
What song is an example of a canon?
Sumer is icumen in
True of false: The English Madrigals were super propagandized to celebrate Queen Elizabeth.
What revolutionary thing happened in 1517?
The Protestant Reformation, Lutheran Church was born
What happened in 1534 that was significant for music?
Henry the 8th (England) cut ties with church.
What's the German word for Troubadour?
True or false: The melodic range in these days way less than an octave.
What's Chanson De Gest?
Songs of deeds. Songs based on epic poems.
What's the term for dance music?
What's Musica Enchiriadis?
An anonymous musical treatise of the 9th century. The first attempt to lay down some rules about polyphony.
What movement started as a rebuttle to the Protestant Reformation in 1545?
The Counter Reformation
Tell me everything you know about the Counter Reformation?
In a Council of Trent, the leader of the church were wondering what they could change to get people to come back to church. They decided they they wanted a simpler and more moving style of music, instead of chant and organum.
What piece of music was prompted by the Counter Reformation?
Missa Papae Marcelli by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.
What are the two most important facts about Madrigals?
They're almost always about love, and they're almost always through composed.
What year did Petrucci print the first music?
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