Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance
Terms in this set (47)
Passing of traits from parents to offspring
The scientific study of heredity
any observable feature, or trait, of an organism
a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person.
an organism that always passes down certain phenotypic traits to its offspring of many generations.
Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
mating of 2 organisms
Parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
offspring of the F1 generation
Different forms of a gene
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Law of Segregation
Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
genetic makeup of an organism
Location of a gene on a chromosome
A cross between two individuals, concentrating on only one definable trait
Cross or mating between organisms involving two pairs of different traits
law of independent assortment
Each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
rule of multiplication
A statistical rule stating that the probability of two independent events occurring together is the product(multiply) of their individual probabilities.
rule of addition
the probability that an event can occur in two or more alternative ways is the sum of the separate probabilities of the different ways
A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
heterozygous individuals who carry the recessive allele but are phenotypically normal
Prenatal diagnostic technique that involves inserting a needle to obtain a sample of amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus.
chronic villus sampling
A technique of prenatal diagnosis in which a small sample of the fetal portion of the placenta is removed and analyzed to detect certain genetic and congenital defects in the fetus. Safer alternative to aminocentesis.
A technique for examining a fetus in the uterus. High-frequency sound waves echoing off the fetus are used to produce an image of the fetus.
a relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over another
Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
ABO blood groups
based on having an A, B, both or no antigens on red blood cells
Inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct trait of both alleles.
A single gene having multiple effects on an individuals phenotype
combined effect of two or more genes on a single character
chromosome theory of inheritance
A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
Genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses.
the phenotype for a character most commonly observed in natural populations
a rare allele in the same population
the proportion of offspring of a genetic cross that have phenotypes different from the parental phenotypes due to crossing over between linked genes during gamete formation
ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome
A genetic map based on recombination frequencies.
Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
gene located on a sex chromosome
Genes found on the X chromosome.