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APHG Chapter 9 Geographic Concepts
Terms in this set (54)
Central Business District (CBD)
The downtown heart of a central city, marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
The possibility of change that results from people living together in cities.
The entire built-up, non-rural area and its population, including the most recently constructed suburban appendages. Provides a better picture of the dimensions and population of such an area than the delimited municipality (central city) that forms its heart.
Conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics.
A relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in these as they stayed in one place to tend their crops.
One of two components, together with social stratification, that enable the formation of cities; agricultural production in excess of what the producer needs for his or her own sustenance and that of his or her family and that is then sold for consumption by others.
One of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige.
Group of decision-makers and organizers in early cities who controlled the resources, and often the lives, of others,
First Urban Revolution
The innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five separate hearths.
Region of great cities (e.g. Ur and Babylon) located between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers; chronologically the first urban hearth, dating to 3500 BC, and founded in the Fertile Crescent.
Nile River Valley
Chronologically, the second urban hearth, dating to 3200 BC.
Indus River Valley
Chronologically, the third urban hearth dating to 2200 BC.
Huang He and Wei River Valley
Rivers in present-day China; it was at the confluence of the Huang He and Wei Rivers where chronologically the fourth urban hearth was established around 1500 BC.
Chronologically the fifth urban hearth, dating to 1100 BC.
Chronologically the sixth urban hearth, dating to 900 BC.
An area to which an innovation diffuses and from which the innovation diffuses more broadly.
Literally "high point of the city". The upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city, usually devoted to religious purposes.
In ancient Greece, public spaces where citizens debated, lectured, judged one another, planned military campaigns, socialized, and traded.
The internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character and physical setting.
The external location attributes of a place; its relative location or regional position with reference to other non-local places.
The study of the physical form and structure of urban places.
The focal point of ancient Roman life combining the functions of the ancient Greek acropolis and agora.
Region adjacent to every town and city within its influence is dominant.
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
A country's largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital city as well.
Central Place Theory
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
Sun Belt Phenomenon
the movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern states to the south and southwest
The division of a city into different regions or zones (e.g. residential or industrial) for certain purposes or functions (e.g. housing or manufacturing).
Area of a city with a relatively uniform land use.
The urban area that is not suburban; generally, the older or original city that is surrounded by newer suburbs.
A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city.
Movement of upper- and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions.
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
A term introduced by American journalist Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the United States away from the CBD toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe.
Cities with 10 million or more residents.
Developed by geographers Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford, a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene.
Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrape wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
Developed by geographer T.G. McGee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium sized cities of Southeast Asia.
Legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas.
A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominately white neighborhoods.
Rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American city that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously whit neighborhoods.
The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourist alike in terms of economic activity.
The rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned, housing of low-income inner-city residents.
Homes bought in many American suburbs with the intent of tearing them down and replacing them with much larger homes, often referred to as McMansions.
Homes referred to as such because of their "super size" and similarity in appearance to other such homes; homes often built in place of tear-downs in American suburbs.
Unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning.
Outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
Restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guest.
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government and is not included in that government's GNP; as opposed to a formal economy.
Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy.
Spaces of Consumption
Areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services; driven primarily by the global media industry.
A structural model of the American city that suggests that low-rent and other types of areas can extend from the CBD to the city's outer edge, creating zones that are shaped like a piece of pie.
Multiple Nuclei Model
A structural model of the American city that suggests a decline in significance of the CBD and the concomitant rise in significance in regions within metropolitan areas with their own nuclei.
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