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SCI 1102 - Final Exam
Terms in this set (60)
Freshwater is only BLANK of all water and not even all of that is available for drinking.
What is ground water?
water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.
What is surface water?
water found on Earth's surface in places like oceans, lakes, rivers, and reservoirs
What is a water table?
the level below which the ground is saturated with water.
What is a confined aquifers?
trapped between impermeable clay.
What is an unconfined aquifers?
not trapped between impermeable clay.
What is a watershed?
an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.
What is the world's largest known aquifer?
Where is the world's largest known aquifer located?
Under the Great Plains in the US (between Nebraska & Kansas)
What is a floodplain?
an area of low-lying ground adjacent to a river, formed mainly of river sediments and subject to flooding.
What is a riparian area?
interface between land and a river or stream.
What is a braided river?
A river that flows as an interconnected series of water courses
How do meandering rivers form?
form larger and larger bends due to erosion and deposition
How do oxbow lakes form?
have the most exaggerated shape and may form oxbow lakes ( U shape kinda)
Are lakes biologically diverse?
Can they be divided up into different zones with different diversity?
yes; 4 zones.
Compare and Contrast: oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes
- Oligotrophic lakes have a poor nutrient supply and little to no plant life.
- Eutrophic Lakes have a high nutrient supply and a lot of plant life
Are their different types of wetlands with specific characteristics? (You don't need to memorize the different types)
yes; 3 different types: freshwater, swamps, and bogs.
What is a ephemeral pool (vernal pool)?
adapted to seasonal drying; form in the snowmelt of early spring and dry up later in the summer
Are wetlands valuable for wildlife? (Ex. Migratory birds in Louisiana)
Is our current use of surface and ground water sustainable?
How are time and space sometimes obstacles to getting water to people?
because the water gets contaminated
What percentage of water is used for agriculture?
What percentage of water is used for residential and municipal use?
What percentage of water is used for industry use?
What is consumptive use?
when water is removed from an aquifer or surface water body and is not returned
What is nonconsumptive use?
such as with hydroelectric dams, either does not remove, or only temporarily removes water from a source
How much water from the Colorado River reaches the ocean?
None; the excessive withdrawal of surface water has led to many world rivers running dry before reaching the sea.
What is water mining?
the withdrawal of water faster than it can be replenished, is taking place in many regions
Why is the Aral Sea significant?
It is getting drained for irrigation, has led to a loss of fishing jobs, loss of cotton industry
Why is groundwater more easily depleted than surface water?
because it is recharged so slowly.
Are many rivers dammed? Are we building many more or removing them?
400 dams; we are removing them.
How can we lower residential and municipal water usage?
installing low-flow faucets, showerheads, washing machines, and toilets.
also, rainwater harvesting and gray water.
what is Xeriscaping?
landscaping using plants adapted to arid conditions.
Water mining occurs when?
Water is withdrawn from an aquifer at a faster rate than it replenishes
Which of these would be negatively affected by the construction of a dam?
downstream wetland habitats
Which of these is not a water conservation strategy, but a way to increase water availability?
What is water pollution ?
any changes in the chemical, physical, or biological properties of water due to human activities
What is point source water pollution?
discrete locations that release water pollution
What is non-point source water pollution?
arise from multiple inputs over large areas, such as farms, city streets, and residential neighborhoods
What form of human-generated pollution causes eutrophication of surface waters?
What form of wastewater treatment will use aeration and bacteria to remove most of the organic material before chlorine or UV light disinfects it?
What ocean depths are most/least studied?
Most: Very deep, very shallow
Least: in the middle
Are there mountains and/or waterfalls in the ocean?
What are some ways/reasons octopus/cuttlefish/squid change color?
when they are fighting, to show attraction, and camouflage.
What is bioluminescence?
the production of light by living organisms
What obstacles must be overcome for humans to study the ocean below 200 ft & 500 ft?
you have to get a submersible to dive down below 200 feet, however they are so expensive that people end up diving deeper because they don't wanna waste their time and money on look between 0- 500 feet.
What is the planet's largest living structure?
Great Barrier Reef
How is the planet's largest living structure facing danger?
it is starting to die because of the pollution and the ocean not being taken care of.
What is significant about these ocean depths (from How deep is the ocean video): 330?
blue whales hunt at this level.
What is significant about these ocean depths (from How deep is the ocean video): 1,640?
whales hunt giant squid
What is significant about these ocean depths (from How deep is the ocean video): 2,400?
danger zone for modern nuclear attack submarines
What is significant about these ocean depths (from How deep is the ocean video): 3,280?
sunlight can not reach us - the midnight zone
What is significant about these ocean depths (from How deep is the ocean video): 9,816?
the deepest any mammal has been recorded swimming
What is significant about these ocean depths (from How deep is the ocean video): 12,500?
where the Titanic lays, deepest laying octopus lives, pressure is 378 times greater than surface
What is significant about these ocean depths (from How deep is the ocean video): 20,000?
hadal zone - an area for the oceans deepest trenches like the Mariana Trench
What is significant about these ocean depths (from How deep is the ocean video): 35,797?
Jaques Piccard and Lt. Don Walsh in 1960 descended to the lowest point of the ocean - Challenger Deep
Which of these classifications of water would apply to aquifers such as the Ogallala Aquifer located in the U.S. Great Plains?
freshwater & groundwater
A wetland near you only contains standing water during the spring months, and dries out during summer. What type of wetland is it?
Which part of a pond would be located at its bottom and would have food webs based on decomposition instead of photosynthesis?
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