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APES: Flashcards from the Book Air Pollution
Terms in this set (68)
Name some pollutants that exist the smokestacks of of coal burning power plants, ore smelters, etc?
Smokestack can reduce _______ pollution but increase _____________ pollution
Is SO2 a primary or secondary pollutant?
As prevailing winds carry SO2 and NOX, what secondary pollutants are formed?
H2SO4 (Sulfuric Acid)
Nitric Acid Vapor (HNO3)
Nitrate Salts (NO3-)
What are the two ways that the secondary pollutants descend through the atmosphere?
Dry and Wet Deposition
Wet deposition usually has a ph of
Wet or dry, when secondary pollutants, usually acidic, from smokestacks descend through the atmosphere
What two cycles are effected by acid deposition?
Nitrogen and sulfur
Humans are disrupting the nitrogen and sulfur cycles by adding excessive amounts of ________ and __________.
What are some examples of basic compounds in soil that neutralize the soil, or act as a buffer?
Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)
Limestone and CaCO3 are both examples of:
Where does the worst acid deposition occur and why?
Asia (China in specific)
Because China gets 70% of its total energy and 80% of its electricity from burning coal and these plants don't have adequate pollution controls
Who is the world's top emitter in SO2?
Describe what China's high SO2 emissions can effect others?
Damages crops and threatening food security in Japan, NK, and SK(in their country as well)
Can contribute to South Asian Massive Cloud
What are some effects of acid deposition?
Can damage statues, make lakes and other bodies of water more acidic, contribute to respiratory diseases, can leach toxins from soil to lakes
What are two toxins leached out of soil and rocks and transferred to lakes via acid deposition and can be dangerous to humans?
Most fish cannot survive in water with a PH less than?
It is especially hard to plants to grow when the ph of soil is lower than
Name a country that is currently suffering from low ph in soil and struggling with the crops
What are the two effects of acid deposition on forests?
Leaching essential plant nutrients such as calcium and magnesium
The rain releases ions of aluminum, lead, cadmium, mercury
What is the effect of rain releasing ions of Al, Pb, Cadmium, and mercury?
They damage tree roots
They can kill them directly
They can weaken them and leave them vulnerable to severe cold, diseases, insect attacks, drought
What kind of trees are the most vulnerable to acid deposition?
Mountain top forest trees
What are the two kinds of mountaintop trees that are most vulnerable to acid deposition?
Acid Deposition and air pollutants from coal-burning power plant resulted in what Environmental Protection Act?
Clean Air Act of 1990
What Act establishes stronger air pollution regulations for key pollutants in the United States? Reduced amounts of NOX and SO2 in the air?
Clean Air Act
Is Acid Deposition damaging every area in America?
Nope, it's usually the lakes and trees that are near coal-burning facilities; the Clean Air Act has also reduced the effects of Acid Deposition
What are some solutions to decreasing SO2 and NOx emissions? (Reducing acid deposition)
Reduce Coal Use
Burn Low-sulfur coal
INcrease use of natural gas and renewable energy sources
Remove SO2 particulates and NO from smokestack gases
Remove NOx from motor vehicle exhaust
Tax emissions on SO2
Add limestone/calcium carbonate to neutralize the soil/ lakes
Add phosphate fertilizer to neutralize acidified lakes
Hybrid motor vehicles
Improving the designing houses and buildings
What are some examples of buffers?
What is the downside of using ground lime and limestone to neutralize the acidic lakes/soil?
Kill plankton and aquatic plants
Can harm wetland plants that do need acid
Must be done many times a year
What is the downside of using phosphate fertilizer to neutralize acidic lakes?
Can cause excessive growth of algae and other vegetation and deplete dissolve oxygen
Are the acts to reduce pollution effective in the US?
Yes, they have reduced NOx and SO2 by a lot
Rainwater in the Eastern US is is between ___________-_______x as acidic as it should be.
Number 1 emitter of SO2?
According to WHO and World Bank, what is the world's most serious air pollution problem, especially with the poor?
What are some effects of indoor air pollution?
What are some examples of indoor pollution?
People vulnerable to indoor pollution
Child below 5
Peeps with respiratory problems
Peeps with Heart disease
Dust mites and Cockroach droppings can cause.....
What effect on health do mold and mildew have>
Air pollutants in buildings lead to a number of health effects, a phenomenon known as:
Symptoms of Sick-Building Syndrome
Shortness of breath
Four most dangerous indoor air pollutants in Developed Countries:
Formaldehyde (from building materials and various household products)
Radon 22 gas (source underground radioactive rocks)
Particles of various substances (from motor vehicles, industrial pp, wood burning)
A colorless and extremely irritating chemical; Chemical that causes most difficulty in Developed countries from the indoor pollutants
Effects of formaldehyde
Chronic breathing problems, Dizziness, rashes, headaches, sore throats, skin and eye irritation, wheezing, nausea
The health effects from air pollutants found in buildings are known as:
Sneezing, Headaches, dizziness, coughing, nausea, and burning eyes as a results of indoor pollutants is known as:
What are the 4 most dangerous indoor pollutants?
Formaldehyde (from building materials or household items)
Radioactive Radon Gas 222 (from underground rock deposits)
Particulates (from motor vehicles, coal burning, wood burning)
Most dangerous indoor pollutant:
Colorless and extremely irritating gas that is the most dangerous indoor pollutant
Most of the formaldehyde people are exposed to comes from what>?
Common household materials
What are some source for Formaldehyde?
Building materials (plywood, particle board, paneling, high gloss wood)
Peeps living in mobile homes provided by the Government in Louisiana (who were displaced by hurricane Katrina), experience high levels of CH2O
Colorless, odorless radioactive gas that is produced by the natural radioactive decay of uranium 238
Radon Gas 222
Why is radon 222 so dangerous as an indoor pollutant?
Once is makes its way into a house, especially unventilated ones, it can build to high levels
Radon 222 can decay into solid particles of other radioactive elements
What is another radioactive element that Radon 222 can decay into and can cause lung cancer?
Long-term effects of Polonium 210
Most victims of radon-related lung cancer are usually what kind of people?
What are some ways to reduce the amount of radon pollution?
Law in the United States where the federal government established air pollution regulations for key pollutants that are enforced by state state and major cities
Clean Air Act of 1970,1977,1990
What are the dirty half dozens?
The air quality standard set to protect human health is referred to as
The air quality standard set to protect environmental and property damage is called
EPA has established national emissions standards for more than how many Hazardous Air Pollutants?
TRI includes information about the HAPs
What did the Clean Air Act do as a result of reducing SO2 emissions?
Emissions Trading: enables power plants to buy and sell SO2 pollution rights
Law that is part of the Pollution Prevention Act requires refineries, power plants, mines, and factories to report their releases and waste management methods for 667 toxic chemicals?
Toxic Release Inventory of 1990
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