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Grade 7 Ecology Test
Terms in this set (48)
A living thing that obtains food, water, shelter and other things it needs to live, grow and reproduce from its environment
An environment that provides the things an organism needs to live, grow and reproduce.
The living parts of a habitat.
The nonliving parts of an organism's habitat including water, sunlight, oxygen, temperature and soil.
The process in which some organisms use water along with sunlight and carbon dioxide to make their own food.
A mixture of rock fragments, nutrients, air, water and the decaying remains of living things.
A group of organisms that are physically similar and can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce.
All the members of one species in a particular area.
All the different populations that live together in an area.
The community of organisms that live in a particular area, along with their nonliving surroundings.
The study of how living things interact with each other and their environment.
ecological organization from smallest to largest
Organism (prairie dog) --> Population (prairie dog town) --> Community (all the living things that interact on the prairie) --> Ecosystem (all the living and nonliving things on the prairie)
methods of determining the size of a population
Direct observation, indirect observation, sampling and mark-and-recapture studies
Counting all of the members of a population to determine its size
looking for signs of an organism to determine the population of the organism
Counting the number of an organism in a small area and then multiplying to find the number in a larger area
An approximation of a number, based on reasonable assumptions
Catching, counting and marking the members of a population in a specific area then returning to the area later to capture the members of the population again, recording how many had marks and how many do not. Using a mathematical formula, the total population in the area can be calculated.
reasons for decreases in a population
death and emigration
reasons for increases in a population
birth and immigration
The number of births in a population in a certain amount of time
The number of deaths in a population in a certain amount of time
Moving into a population
Leaving a population
population density equation
population density = # of individuals / unit area
An environmental factor that causes a population to decrease such as food, water, space and weather conditions
The largest population that an area can support
Individuals who are best suited for their environment tend to survive and produce offspring
The behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environments
The role of an organism in its habitat, how it makes its living, when and how the organism reproduces and the physical conditions it requires to survive.
the three major types of interactions among organisms
Competition, predation and symbiosis
The struggle between organisms to survive as they attempt to use the same limited resource
An interaction in which one organism kills another for food
The organism that does the killing
The organism that is killed
Prey adaptations including mimicry, protective covering, false coloring, warning coloring, camouflage
A close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species. There are three types - mutualism, commensalism and parasitism
A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor helped.
A symbiotic relationship involving one organism living on or inside another organism and harming it.
The organism that benefits in parasitism
The organism that a parasite lives in or on
The series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time.
The series of changes that occur in an area where no soil or organisms exist such as a new island formed by the eruption of an undersea volcano or an area of rock uncovered by a melting sheet of ice
The first species to populate an area that are often carried to the area by wind or water.
The series of changes that occur in an area where the ecosystem has been disturbed, but where soil and organisms still exist
natural disturbances to an ecosystem
may include fires, hurricanes and tornadoes
human disturbances to an ecosystem
may include farming, logging or mining
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