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Chapter 37 Notes
Terms in this set (18)
Literal Meaning - Earl Warren was a Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who employed loose interpretation during his time in public office to improve rights for both African-Americans. He basically fought for minorities who faced a biased trial when accused of crimes.
Interpretive Meaning - This showed how someone in public office was complementing the movement for civil rights in this time period following World War II.
Literal Meaning - This Evangelist fundamentalist preacher gained a wide following in the 1950s with an appearance across the country and overseas postwar. He would commonly appear at religious rallies and allowed people to connect with and appreciate religion even more, causing thousands to attend his sermons.
Interpretive Meaning - This highlights how religion had a prominent role in postwar America as people resorted to this form of self-moralization.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Literal Meaning - This U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader.was central in the opposition movement against discrimination, which harmed blacks. He organized a nonviolent resistance movement as well as mass demonstrations, but he was assassinated in Memphis.
Interpretive Meaning - His nonviolence movement taking inspiration from Gandhi really helped the movement in favor of civil rights in the U.S.
Ho Chi Minh
Literal Meaning - This communist leader during the 1950s and 1960s in North Vietnam used guerrilla warfare to fight American-funded forces who were against communist regimes. This created a situation in which the U.S. could not win the war.
Interpretive Meaning - This reveals how there was a strong force which supported communism in the world, and they put up a terrific fight against the U.S.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Literal Meaning - Die was the leader of Southern Vietnam and he was supported by Western capitalist governments such as the United States in opposition to the communist regime of Northern Vietnam.
Interpretive Meaning - His weak leadership and popularity made the eradication of communism from Vietnam an extremely difficult task which took its toll in the Vietnam War.
Literal Meaning - This aggressive Soviet leader failed in the gamble of strategically placing missiles in Cuba, which cost him his leadership position.
Interpretive Meaning - This highlights Soviet aggression and tensions with the United States, and many current political commentators draw parallels between Putin and Khrushchev.
Literal Meaning - Fidel Castro was the leader of Cuba when it was communist and when it experienced the tumultuous Cuban Missile Crisis.
Interpretive Meaning - Castro reveals how communism was existent only 900 miles from the American coastline.
Literal Meaning -Formed in 1954, this Southeast Asian treaty formed a group of nations that resisted communism and its aggressive expansion.
Interpretive Meaning - This organization complemented organizations such as NATO which were against communism in the world.
Betty Friedan/The Feminine Mystique
Literal Meaning - The American military industrial complex is the body of the U.S. developmental sector of the armed forces. This had a large role in the arms race with the growth of the American nuclear program and the invention of the hydrogen bomb.
Interpretive Meaning - This highlights the effect of the Cold War in the United States as American tech had to constantly compete with Soviet military power, which was aided by spies like Robert Oppenheimer.
Literal Meaning - Announced by President Eisenhower and Congress in 1957, this pledge stated that the U.S. would send military and economic aid to the Middle Eastern countries who were threatened by communists.
Interpretive Meaning - This shows that with the rise of the oil regions of the Middle East, the United States wanted to keep an eye on Arab countries and keep them from communism. Again, it is seen here how the U.S. wants to stop the spread of communism and continue its policy of containment.
Literal Meaning - The Geneva Conference was an agreement ended the war between France and Vietnam. Vietnam was partitioned into the North and South to provide for the two opposing governments. It also set up an election in 1956 which would decide if the government of the south or that of the north would become the head of Vietnam.
Interpretive Meaning - This shows how imperialist control was still present in the post World War II time period.
Brown v. Board of Education
Literal Meaning - The Supreme Court case ruled that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional, which was a monumental success for the civil rights movement.
Interpretive Meaning - Symbolically annulling the Plessy v. Ferguson case, this case sparked massive amounts of controversy in the South were racism was entrenched in society.
Literal Meaning - The United States and the Soviet Union were involved in a race to discover who had more missiles and war equipment, and the missile gap was the perceived difference in how much the United States had compared to how much the Soviet Union had.
Interpretive Meaning - This represents the arm race which exponentially leapfrogged as competition between the Soviet Union and the U.S. escalated.
Literal Meaning - The Sputnik was the first satellite sent into space by the Soviet Union in 1957, which showed the space race between the U.S. and Russia.
Interpretive Meaning - This clearly shows how the arms race seeped into the science sector of the globe, and this was basically a landmark race for the space exploration.
National Defense Education Act
Literal Meaning - Passed in response to Sputnik, this act stimulated college education for many Americans, and this encouraged science funding in the United States.
Interpretive Meaning - This shows the divisive competition and escalating tensions in every field of government between the Soviet Union and the U.S.
Literal Meaning - The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union shows that the U.S. was spying on Russia during the Cold War.
Interpretive Meaning - This reflected an embarrassment for the U.S., because President Eisenhower had lied to the American people about not spying.
Montgomery Bus Boycott/Rosa Parks
Literal Meaning - In 1955, Rosa Parks completely ignored the Jim Crow laws of the South, and she sat in the white section of the bus. Her arrest triggered a boycott for Montgomery Buses.
Interpretive Meaning - This reveals how the civil rights movement was gaining momentum in the U.S. despite Jim Crow laws in the South.
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