Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 16 vocab A
Terms in this set (48)
The study of hormones and endocrine organs.
Endocrine System Overview
Controls and integrates:
-Growth and development
-Maintenance of electrolytes and fluids
-Regulation of metabolism and energy
-Mobilization of body defenses
Glands that release substances through DUCTS. Ex: Sweat glands.
Ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood
Long-distance chemical signals; travel in blood or lymph.
Chemicals that exert effects on same cells that secrete them
locally acting chemicals that affect cells other than those that secrete them.
Amino acid-based hormones
Amino acid derivatives, peptides and proteins
Synthesized from cholesterol; Gonadal and adrenocortical hormones..
cells that have receptors for a particular hormone
Hormone action on target cells may be to:
- Alter plasma membrane permeability and/or membrane potential by opening or closing ion channels.
- Stimulate synthesis of enzymes or other proteins.
- Activate or deactivate enzymes.
- Induce secretory activity.
- Stimulate mitosis.
Water-soluble hormones (aminos)
-Act on plasma membrane receptors
- Act via G protein second messengers
- Cannot enter cell
Lipid-soluble hormones (steroid/thyroid)
- Act on intracellular receptors that directly activate genes.
- Can enter cell.
cAMP signaling mechanism
1.Hormone (first messenger) binds to receptor
2.Receptor activates G protein
3.G protein activates adenylate cyclase
4.Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP (second messenger)
5.cAMP activates protein kinases that phosphorylate proteins
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate
A second messenger within photoreceptors that is responsible for maintaining the dark current by opening sodium channels
Steroid hormones and thyroid hormone:
- Diffuse into target cells and bind with intracellular receptors
- Receptor-hormone complex enters nucleus; binds to specific region of DNA
- Prompts DNA transcription to produce mRNA
- mRNA directs protein synthesis.
- Promote metabolic activities, or promote synthesis of structural proteins or proteins for export from cell
A single receptor that binds a ligand inside a cell, such as the receptor for NO, steroid hormones, vitamin D, and thyroid hormones
Direct Gene activation
Steroid hormones are lipid soluble, so they can diffuse through the cell membrane since the cell membrane is made of fat. Then, the hormones bind to an intracellular receptor.
Target cell specificity
Hormones have a target (receptor) that they are going to cause to react-that target cell could be everywhere in the blood or in a specific location.
Target Cell activation
Blood levels of hormones; relative number of receptors on target cells; affinity of those receptors for the hormone
target cells form more receptors in response to the low level hormone
Target cells lose receptors in response to high hormone levels
Nutrients and ions in the blood control hormone secretion. (ex. parathyroid hormone regulation by calcium)
Nerve fibers stimulate hormone release. Example: sympathetic nervous system stimulation of adrenal medulla to release catecholamines.
Hormones regulate specific cell to secrete other hormones (ex. hypothalmus, anterior pituitary, target cells, anterior pituitary axis)
Nervous system modulation
nervous system modifies the stimulation of endocrine glands and their negative feedback mechanisms
Hormones in the Blood (slide 42**)
1. hormones circulate in the blood either free or bound (steroids & thyroid hormones are attached to plasma proteins; all others circulate without carriers
time required for hormone's blood level to decrease by half. (varies from fraction of a minute to a week)
Onset of Hormone Activity
-Some responses can be immediate.
-Some,especially steroid,hours to days.
-Some must be activated in target cells.
Duration of Hormone activity
Limited; can be 10 secs or 10 hours but effects can disappear as blood levels drop or they could just stay and continue to mess with you
INTERACTIONS: one hormone ALLOWS the other one to work, without the other, the 1st one won't work properly
Any enhancing drug interaction. Synergistic drugs, when taken together, have a great effects than the effects of taking either drugs alone.
THE INTERACTION OF TWO DRUGS TO INHIBIT OR CANCEL EACH OTHER'S EFFECT
Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
Has two major lobes, located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and a posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
Posterior Pituitary (lobe)
Neural tissue,;Does not synthesize hormones; Stores and releases peptide hormones OXYTOCIN & ADH, produced by neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus. Secretion stimulated by action potentials from the hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
"Master gland", affected by seasonal changes and stress, controlled by hypothalamu
A hormone released by the posterior pituitary that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding.
this hormone causes the kidneys to reabsorb more water cuasing us to urinate less which retain fluids. it also raises blood pressure. would be released in dehydration situation to conserve fluids.
ADH deficiency - excess water secreted, hyperosmolar blood (Think of dad sitting on upstairs toilet)
Syndrome of inappropriate adh secretion
Retention of fluid; can cause headaches and disorientation. Restricts fluids and results in blood sodium level monitoring.
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
-All are proteins
-All except GH activate cyclic AMP second-messenger systems at their targets
- all tropic hormones
GH, anterior pituitary, stimulates cell growth and division and speed at which cells use carbs and fats;Another name for somatotropic hormone is.
In children results in gigantism; in adults results in acromegaly.
In children results in pituitary dwarfism
It prompts the thyroid gland in the neck to release thyroxine, which is necessary for brain development and for GH to have its full impact on body size.
(ACTH) Released from the anterior pituitary gland to target the adrenal cortex. It stimulates the release of hormones involved in stress responses.
Anterior pituitary topic hormones FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing homeon) that stimulates the gonads (testes and ovaries) to produce gametes and to secrete sex steroids.
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that tarets the mammary glands stimulating them to produce breastmilk.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
endocrine 2 mastering
Mastering A and P- Chapter 9 Endocrine S…
A+P II Chapter 16
Exam 3 Part 1: Chapter 17 & (half of) 18
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Endocrine Part I
A&P 11 Ch 16 The Endocrine System
Chapter 16 - The Endocrine System part 1
Chapter 16 -Endocrine
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Abnormal Psychology Test 1
test 2 flash cards - proteins/molecular biology
Test 2 flash cards - the cell cycle
Bio 141 Test 2 class Notes (Tissues/Cancer)
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
(5) Acute Myocardial Infarction
CHAPTER 6 - FLOODING - Geol 110
Jurisprudence AZ Law