37 terms

Terms List Ch. 20 & 21

Stonewall Jackson
One of Robert E. Lee's best West Point generals. He got his nickname "Stonewall" for standing firm in battle and not giving up. "Standing like a stonewall". He was accidently shot by one of his own men in the Battle of Chancellorsville (Friendly Fire).
Ulysses S. Grant
He produced the first major Union victory after initially being just a soldier, but with his success in the West he was promoted. He drove off a Confederate attack at Shiloh but was criticized for heavy Union losses (great counterattack). He devised the campaign to take the area of Vicksburg in 1863. This cut the Confederacy in half from the east to west. After his victory at the Battle of Chattanooga, he was appointed commander of the Union army. Grant attacked forces under General Robert E. Lee in Virginia which was the last area of the war (Appomatox Court House). Grant's administrative ability and innovative strategies were largely responsible for the Union victory. He was often harassed for his drinking problem and many reported him to Lincoln, but with his success he was not taken out.
Emperor Napoleon III of France
He wanted France to intervene in the war and take the Confederate side. However after the Battle of Antietam they retracted from trying to help as well as giving supplies. They wanted the South to win.
Elizabeth Blackwell
She was an abolitionist and one of the first women to get a medical degree. She was a great help during the Civil War and as a woman did more than many believed she could.
George McClellan
"Little Mac" "Tardy George" and other nicknames. He was a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly as the main general of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. However he underestimated force of confederate army, leading to failure of Peninsula Campaign. However, he was hesitant to attack and was removed by President Lincoln and replaced by Joe Hooker. He was very cocky and thought very highly of himself, he later ran for president on the Democratic ticket in 1864 and lost to Lincoln.
George Meade
He replaced Joe Hooker when he hesitated to attack. He was a Union General and became the general of the Army of the Potomac. He is best known for defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863.
General Sherman
In 1864, Sherman was heavily relied on by Lincoln. He won brilliantly in Atlanta. He waged total war which destroyed the South. In Sherman's March they marched to the sea from Atlanta, destroying everything in his path and freeing slaves. From there he went into the Carolinas and put much damage on the south. Which effected Confederate soldiers mentally, physically, and economically. (Soldiers wanted to go home and protect their houses, leading to many desertions).
The 5 Border States
West Virginia
Five Civilized Tribes
Name of the most populous Indian tribes in the Indian Territory: Cherokee, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; they Sided with the Confederacy.
Billy Yank
Nickname for the Union from the Confederates. Opposite of a Johnny Reb which was a Confederate soldier (gray uniforms).
King Wheat VS King Cotton
The South was convinced they would recieve foreign aid because of the economic importance of "King Cotton" to other countries, but the agricultural exports of the North and South were more important. They had great weather and better production (new machinery) that it was better than King Cotton.
Bounty Brokers
These people were more for their own profit than for the war profit. They would enticed people to enlist by giving them a bonus sum of money.
Cradle and Grave
Morrill Tariff Act
This was an act passed by Congress in 1861 to meet the cost of the war. It raised the taxes on shipping from 5 to 10 percent however later needed to increase to meet the demanding cost of the war. This was just one the new taxes being passed to meet the demanding costs of the war. Although they were still low to today's standers they still raked in millions of dollars. It also showed how quickly the North could past laws compared to the new Confederate Government.
National Banking System
It was designed to stimulate the sale of government bonds and to establish a standard bank-note currency. Banks who joined the National Banking System were helped greatly financially. This was our first national banking system since the Bank Ways with Andrew Jackson.
Shoddy Millionaires
This term refers to the people who sold the Union army bad equipment to make money and since it was so cheap it caused the army to buy more products from them. They risked the lives of the soldiers for profit and the wool was cheap.
Fifty Niners
It was like a forty niners when they went searching for gold but this was for petroleum. It was in Pennsylvania.
An ironclad warship commissioned by the United States Navy during the Civil War. The ironclad helped end this battle in a draw.
Confiscation Act in 1862
This act was used to "confiscate" property of the Confederates where areas were captured. Property included homes, money, and slaves. The slaves that were confiscated were set free.
Emancipation Proclamation
It was issued buy Lincoln after the Battle of Antietam and it was a precedent set in order to free the slaves. It did not however free the slaves in the border states just the ones in the South. This created controversy when those who fought to keep the Union together deserted the cause.
War Democrats
These democrats were actually pro lincoln and believed in the war. They were 1/3 of the factions that split up the Democratic Party. They were a small group but they voted for Lincoln in the Election of 1864.
Peace Democrats
These democrats were against Lincoln and did not believe in the Civil War. They were a third of the factions that split up the Democratic Party. They voted for McClellan on the ballot.
13th Amendment
After Lincoln was reelected he helped make pass the 13th amendment which abolished slavery entirely. It was passed through Congress and was the first out of three amendments passed on blacks.
Fort Sumter
Was a federal fort taken by the Confederacy in South Carolina on the dawn of the war. The Union had barely mobilized and were ill prepared and lost however he did not want to be too aggressive an lose the border states.
The Trent Affair
This was the first major crisis with Britain after a union warship stopped the British steamer the Trent. British was really upset.
Battle of Bull Run
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody battle after this the draft was drafted by Lincoln
Battle of Antietam
One of the most important Civil War battles in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. It was one of the bloodiest battle of the war resulting, it was also the reason the Emancipation proclamation was able to be put into action.
Seven Days' Battles
This was a series of battles over the seven days in and near Richmond, Virginia during the Civil War. General Robert E. Lee drove the invading Union Army of the Potomac away from Richmond and into a retreat down the Virginia Peninsula, this was a failure of the Campaign and McClellan once again failed in another battle due to fear.
It was an abandoned Union warship salvaged by the Confederacy. It was enforced with iron plates to become an ironclad ship. It was renamed "Virginia" and was a threat to the entire navy.
Remember Fort Pillow
This was a massacre of slaves that were killed after surrendering and being captured in a battle. People used to fight and shout remember fort pillow.
Battle of Gettysburg
General George Meade took over the war. Meade took command at Gettysburg. This battle was the bloodiest battle of the Civil War, with over 23,000 union causalities and 28, 000 confederate. Lincoln gave his famous speech commemorating the people of this battle. It was significant because it shifted the tide in the Union's favor. It also forced England and France to cancel major contracts to supply weapons and ships to the South.
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Union was defeated again with the Confederacy being led by Robert E. Lee. General Thomas Stonewall Jackson was accidentally wounded here by one of his own men.
Picketts Charge
An unsuccessful charge by the Confederates that led them to lose the Battle of Gettysburg. They believed the Union was unprepared but they were.
Battle of Shiloh
Confederate forces suprised union troops & drove them across the Tennesee river; union got backup and won the battle but it was one of the most bloody battles in the civil war. Led by Grant (powerful counterattack)
Appomatox Courthouse
This was where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant and the civil war ended here. Lee was cornered here and Grant outlasted him.
Election of 1864
In this election, five political parties supported candidates for the presidency. They included the War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Radical Republicans, and the National Union Party. Each political party offered a different point of view on how the war should be run and what should be done to the Confederate states after the war. The National Union Party joined with Lincoln won the election on the recent northern victories against the South the War Democrats also believed in Lincoln. The Copperheads and the peace democrats were against Lincoln. The National Union Party was a great idea by Jackson in order to get the support he needed to win the election.