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Writing Process and Rhetorical Modes
Terms in this set (56)
What is the purpose of prewriting?
to write down ideas on paper without evaluating their effectiveness
What two boundaries should be determined at the beginning of the writing process?
type and length
What three elements should be identified early in the writing process?
purpose, audience, and tone
What are the two essential parts of a thesis statement?
paper's limited subject and point of view or attitude
What are the six characteristics of effective evidence?
1. relevant and unified
What are the four ways to organize descriptive details?
What in narration should be used to hook a reader?
all elements clearly link back to main point and thesis; transitions are a must
What types of writing should be limited in narrative writing?
limit commentary and telling instead of showing
the responsibility to convey narrative significance
What two ingredients help make a narrative "vigorous and immediate?"
using vivid sensory
using dialogue to create aura of narrative immediacy
What are the two things a writer must keep consistent in narrative writing?
point of view
specific names, anecdotes, personal observations, expert opinion, facts, statistics, case studies
What are three ways in which examples improve or bolster writing?
make writing interesting
help prevent unintended ambiguity
What are five examples of exemplification?
specific names, anecdotes, observation, expert opinion, facts
In order to be effective, examples must be?
specific, developed, relevant, accurate, and representative
Why should a writer choose third-person point-of-view?
places subject in foreground and writer in the background
Comparison works well to demonstrate what three concepts?
one thing is better than another
one thing which may seem different but are alike
which seems alike but are actually different
The thesis in a comparison-contrast essay should do what?
Name the subjects being compared and contrasted
Indicate whether the essay focuses on the subjects similarities and differences or both
State the essay's main point of comparison or contrast
What is the use of analogy in a comparison-contrast essay?
used to compare two seemingly unrelated things
presents all arguments related to A, and then compares and/or contrasts them to all arguments related to B
one-side-at-a-time organization (block)
alternates arguments about the two items (A and B) that you are comparing and/or contrasting
What does cause-effect writing attempt to uncover? How is cause-effect used?
subtle surprising connections between events or phenomena, and enables us to make sense of our experiences, revealing a universe that is somewhat less arbitrary and chaotic
an ordered sequence of events in which any one event in the chain causes the next.
don't mistake this correlation for causation, "after this, therefore this"
post hoc fallacy
What is correlation as opposed to causation?
correlation: occurring around the same time
causation: one directly causing the other
What are two ways to organize cause and effect?
chronological and emphatic
involves taking a single unit or concept, breaking the unit down into its parts, and then analyzing the connections among the part and between the part and the whole
brings two or more related items together and categorizes them according to kind or type
What is the principle of division-classification?
the number of differences
separate and very different from each other
What would a division-classification essay include in the recommendation section?
include surprising insights
the number of differences
a spoken or written representation or account of a person, object, or event
What is the difference between objective and subjective?
Objective: hard facts
What is the difference between denotation and connotation?
denotation: literal meaning
connotation: feeling or emotion evoked
What are three elements that determine the tone of a subjective description?
purpose, attitude towards subject, and reader response you wish to evoke
What "packs more punch" than adverbs?
Why would one use definition in an essay?
in an essay organized mainly around another pattern of development
a definition that allows you to apply personal interpretation to a word or to make a case for a revisionist view of a commonly accepted meaning
What are the three parts of a formal definition?
term, class, characteristics
What should one avoid in writing definition?
tired openers, "is when", circularity
What is definition by negation?
clarifying what the word is not
What is a stipulative definition?
gives restrictions, assigns new meaning to a new term
Why is it important to provide signal devices?
So that the readers can follow the description easily
What type of language and sentence structure should you use when writing descriptive pieces?
vivid sensory language and varied sentence structure
What are the two ways you should organize your points you are discussing in a compare-contrast essay?
Why is classification useful?
it imposes order on the hodge-podge of ideas generated during prewriting
What are you supposed to look for when preparing an effective thesis?
you are supposed to prepare a thesis that does more than signal the paper's subject and suggest you attitude towards the subject-you might also want to state the principle of division-classification at the heart of the essay; you might want the thesis to reveal which part or category you regard as most important
What are important questions to ask when doing a rhetorical analysis?
Why did the author choose these strategies for the particular audience, occasion, and/or purpose?
HOW do the rhetorical strategies help the audience achieve his/her purpose?
WHY does the author choose those strategies for that particular audience and for that particular reason?
Why would a writer choose to use first-person point of view?
to make examples more believable and dramatic
What is the most important thing to remember when choosing the point of view?
keeping in mind the subject and audience
What is another name for cause and effect essays?
essays rooted in the elemental need to make connections
cause and effect essays
How is cause-effect used?
Can be used as the primary or supplementary method used t help make a point in an essay developed through another pattern of development
What are some important things to remember when writing cause-effect essays?
Use language that hints at the complexity of cause-effect relationships
avoid absolutes such as "it must be obvious" and "there is no doubt"
Try phrases such as "most likely" or "it's probable that"
be careful of going to the other extreme and being reluctant to take a stand on the issue
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