Apwh Unit 5 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (66)
1789- 1804; war incited by a slave revolt against white elite planters in the French-controlled Saint Domingue (Haiti), resulting in the creation of the first independent black republic in the Americas) and probs with Britian → sell LO to America → doubled the size of America for $15 million dollars. The rebellion was led by Toussaint who dies in combat and the rebels declare Haiti as Independent.
Toussaint L' Ouverature
Led Haitian revolution and died in combat
Communities formed by escaped slaves in the Caribbean, Latin American. and the United States. survival of african traditions such as house designs, community organizations and language in caribbean
Latin American Independence Movements
The American and French Revolutions and the ideals of the Enlightenment inspired independence movements in Latin America. states that were once under the rule of European counties became independent and led to a drastic loss of power for European powerhouses (rebellions)
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
written by Bolivar outlining his political beliefs when he took Bogota, states that he wanted a unified South America with a capital in Panama, and himself as President. Bolivar wrote this letter while he was exiled in Jamaica to try to get the educated classes to fight for their independence
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy. (American colonies versus Great Britain)
a group of people who leave their native country to form in a new land a settlement subject to, or connected with, the parent nation.
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Signed in 1776 by US revolutionaries; it declared the United States as a free state.
An international movement that between approximately 1780 and 1890 succeeded in condemning slavery as morally repugnant and abolishing it in much of the world; the movement was especially prominent in Britain and the United States. (Anti-slavery movements emerging out of the Great Awakenings of the 18th and 19th centuries)
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote. (The first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written)
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 law that barred Chinese laborers from entering the United States while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
(1644-1911 CE), the last imperial dynasty of China which was overthrown by revolutionaries; was ruled by the Manchu people: began to isolate themselves from Western culture,
massive Chinese rebellion involving an odd form of Christianity and that wanted extreme changes in China. At one point they held Nanjing and threatened the Qing dynasty, but then gentry landowners crushed it
(Devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan)
China's program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West. Chinese modernized their army and encouraged Western investment in factories and railways
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country. (started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops)
Wars between Britain and the Qing Empire (mind 1800s), caused by the Qing government's refusal to let Britain import Opium. China lost and Britain and most other European powers were able to develop a strong trade presence throughout China against their wishes.
Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences (semi-feudal government of Japan in which one of the shoguns unified the country under his family's rule. They moved the capital to Edo, which now is called Tokyo. This family ruled from Edo 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.)
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. (Modernization and industrialization of Japan)
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s; series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Second Industrial Revolution
(1871-1914) Involved development of chemical, electrical, oil, and steel industries. Mass production of consumer goods also developed at this time through the mechanization of the manufacture of food and clothing. It saw the popularization of cinema and radio. Provided widespread employment and increased production.
A group of individuals who partnered together to form a more profitable business. Were very popular to help transcontinental trips to the New World
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. It was then applied to machinery.
European trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society.
Emerged as the most famous socialist belief system during the 19th century. Saw all of history as the story of class struggle. (Emphasizes exploitation and class struggle and includes both communism and other approaches)
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
An association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
In 1919, workers go on more than 3,000 strikes, but fear of communism turns the public against the strikers (strikes were held in order to obtain better working conditions)
The drive for voting rights for women that took place in the United States from 1890 to 1920.
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the infamous ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (opened up the African interior to European trade along the Congo River and by 1884 controlled the area known as the Congo Free State)
White Man's Burden
1899, Rudyard Kipling's poem, "The White Man's Burden," critical about imperialism. Saw the world as Eurocentric and criticized the "white man's" need to westernize other cultures.
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle. particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
(1712-1778) Believed that society threatened natural rights and freedoms. Wrote about society's corruption caused by the revival of sciences and art instead of it's improvement. He was sponsored by the wealthy and participated in salons but often felt uncomfortable and denounced them. Wrote "The Social Contract."
a forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a new system.
a rebellion of French people against their king in 1789
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (give rights to all, except women)
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
device used during the Reign of Terror to execute thousands by beheading people during the French Revolution
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed. Punished for being disloyal
Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Olympe de Gouges
French journalist who demanded equal rights for women.
In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
the belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men
Vindication of the Rights of Women
Written by Mary Wollstonecraft in 1792, this tract was one of the earliest expressions of feminist consciousness.
German and Italian Unification Movements
The unification of states in Germany and Italy
a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent.
The tsarist empire in Asia and E europe, they were overthrown by the Russian Revolution in 1917.
Indian Revolt of 1857
Revolt of Indian and Muslim soldiers against British officers when they were required to use greased cartridges they suspected were being used to pollute them and cause them to convert to Christianity; the revolt spread across north India (aka Sepoy Mutiny)
British rule after India came under the British crown during the reign of Queen Victoria
British East India Company
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 caused the British Government to take direct control over the Indian colony, which had previously been controlled by this organization.
Not a modern nationalist, but this leader of Egypt is seen as the father of modern Egypt and made modernizing reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres during the 19th century.
A coalition starting in the late 1870s of various groups favoring modernist liberal reform of the Ottoman Empire. It was against monarchy of Ottoman Sultan and instead favored a constitution. In 1908 they succeed in establishing a new constitutional era. (Young rebellious people in the Ottoman Empire who forced the Sultan to reform)
'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule
(leader of the Indian independence movement in mid-20th century known for his nonviolent protests)
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