The PPCT System is the first of its kind to completely explore the medical implications of each technique. The techniques are broken down into two categories: Normal Use - Technique used at normal speed with no resistance. Accelerated Use - Technique done at full speed and with full resistance.
In an officer's use of force, as it relates to the in-custody death of a subject, one or more of the risks listed below was a contributing factor.
1. Heavy alcohol intoxication
2. Extraordinary physical strength
3. Poor color
5. Hyperthermia - red face and high body temperature
6. Sudden tranquility or lethargy
8. Cocaine intoxication
9. Obesity - large bellies
10. Aggressive or bizarre behavior
11. Apparent ineffectiveness of chemical spray
The officer should also be aware of the possibility of a subject hyperventilating. Continued rapid breathing or any breathing difficulty may result in the subject losing consciousness. If the officer is unable to restore normal breathing, he/she should summons medical assistance. In case of unconsciousness, subject should be treated by EMS.
Custody related deaths
1. Positional Asphyxia - A lack of oxygen and increase in carbon dioxide in the blood of the subject, brought about by a subject being in a position that restricts breathing.
2. Cocaine Induced Excited Delirium - Also called cocaine psychosis.
3. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) - Characteristics are similar to cocaine induced excited delirium but NMS usually occurs in psychiatric patients who are taking anti-psychotic medication
4. Cocaine Abuse/Toxicity - Cocaine is an agent that stimulates both the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Cocaine constricts blood vessels, elevates heart rate, raises blood pressure, and increases body temperature.
5. Excited Delirium - a state of extreme mental and physiological excitement, characterized by extreme agitation, hyperthermia, hostility, exceptional strength, and endurance without apparent fatigue.
a. The "all weapon systems towards the target" principle can be applied to all aspects of the fighting platform. Once the stance has been established, only the delivery system of the 'weapons' will be a variable, depending on the threat that the officer is faced with.
i. Empty Hand Control - This delivery system is the officer's "personal weapons." Personal weapons are classified as anything attached to the body (hands, feet, knees, etc.). The fighting platform will reflect all personal weapons pointing towards the threat, which will enhance the officer's ability to use focused movement and dynamic hip rotation in the execution of empty hand strikes.
ii. Intermediate Weapon Control - This delivery system is the officer's intermediate weapons. The baton, OC spray, and the electronic disruption devices are examples of intermediate weapons. The fighting platform remains the same, with the intermediate weapon focused towards the threat as well.
iii. Firearms - This delivery system is the officer's firearm. The fighting platform remains the same, with the firearm focused on the target (threat).
a. Once the fighting platform has been established, it will remain constant throughout all movements made by the officer; it remains the same no matter which direction the officer moves, or which delivery system of control he/she is using.
i. Rearward Movement - from the established fighting platform, the officer's rear foot will move first, and the front foot next. Whatever distance that rear foot moves, the front foot must move the exact distance to maintain the balance and power of the stance.
ii. Forward Movement - from the established fighting platform, the officer's front foot will move first, the rear foot next. Whatever distance the front foot moves, the rear foot must move the exact distance to maintain the balance and power of the stance.
iii. Lateral Movement - from the established fighting platform, the foot placed in the lateral (side) direction the officer chooses to move is the foot that moves first, the opposite foot next. For example, lateral movement to the right means that the officer's right foot moves first, left foot next. Lateral movement to the left means that the officer's left foot moves first, right foot next. Whatever distance the lead foot moves, the other foot must move the exact distance to maintain the balance and power of the stance.
iv. Tactical "L" Pattern of Movement - the Tactical "L" movement is a combination of rearward movement with lateral movement. The officer's environment will determine which direction he/she will be able to move. From the established fighting platform, a Tactical "L" to the right means that the officer will take at least two steps to the rear and at least two steps laterally to the right. A Tactical "L" to the left means that the officer will take at least two steps to the rear and at least two steps laterally to the left.