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Terms in this set (32)

All of the techniques within the PPCT System are designed around the "Three Minute Rule," which means if an officer cannot learn the basic mechanics of a technique in three minutes or less, in all probability, the officer will not be able to retain or use the technique in the stress of an actual resistance. Hick's Law states that "less is best."
Stimulus-response training is direct or indirect training that may determine one's actions under stress. Currently there are three methods of training when survival skills are taught. They are: Static Training - Where gross muscle movement is taught without any stimulus initiating action. Techniques are practiced in a slow motion manner without any type of stimulated resistance allowed. No more than 25 repetitions should be needed. Fluid Training - Practicing a technique that is now accompanied by stimulated but relaxed resistance. The resistor gives the officer the most common type of resistance that is applicable to the control method being practiced. This type of training shortens the officer's reaction time and prevents mental stalls. Dynamic Training - This phase of training is designed to duplicate actual resistance the officers may incur. Dynamic training must be practiced with restraints and supervision to prevent injury, or keep injury to a minimum. One benefit is that this type of stimulation separates techniques into those that work and "those that work only in the gym."
The techniques implemented are all gross motor skills. There are three categories of motor skills: Gross Motor Skills - Large muscle movement; explosive or strength events (ex. Squat, thrust); pushing and pulling muscles; working on appendages (legs and arms); five or less repetitions needed. Fine Motor Skills - Small muscle movement; dexterity skills and accuracy skills (fingers and hands); typing and playing piano. Complex Motor Skills - Series of movements; hand/eye coordination skills (ex. Shooting, hitting baseball, child walking, riding a bike).
Stress is a matter of perception, but it is known that competency based training (skills used on street) which will usually be gross motor skills are those that will be used the most in high stress situations.
The PPCT System is the first of its kind to completely explore the medical implications of each technique. The techniques are broken down into two categories: Normal Use - Technique used at normal speed with no resistance. Accelerated Use - Technique done at full speed and with full resistance.
In an officer's use of force, as it relates to the in-custody death of a subject, one or more of the risks listed below was a contributing factor.
1. Heavy alcohol intoxication
2. Extraordinary physical strength
3. Poor color
4. Panic
5. Hyperthermia - red face and high body temperature
6. Sudden tranquility or lethargy
7. Paranoia
8. Cocaine intoxication
9. Obesity - large bellies
10. Aggressive or bizarre behavior
11. Apparent ineffectiveness of chemical spray
The officer should also be aware of the possibility of a subject hyperventilating. Continued rapid breathing or any breathing difficulty may result in the subject losing consciousness. If the officer is unable to restore normal breathing, he/she should summons medical assistance. In case of unconsciousness, subject should be treated by EMS.
Custody related deaths
1. Positional Asphyxia - A lack of oxygen and increase in carbon dioxide in the blood of the subject, brought about by a subject being in a position that restricts breathing.
2. Cocaine Induced Excited Delirium - Also called cocaine psychosis.
3. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) - Characteristics are similar to cocaine induced excited delirium but NMS usually occurs in psychiatric patients who are taking anti-psychotic medication
4. Cocaine Abuse/Toxicity - Cocaine is an agent that stimulates both the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Cocaine constricts blood vessels, elevates heart rate, raises blood pressure, and increases body temperature.
5. Excited Delirium - a state of extreme mental and physiological excitement, characterized by extreme agitation, hyperthermia, hostility, exceptional strength, and endurance without apparent fatigue.
a. Generally, all subject control techniques use one of these principles to control resistive behavior:
i. Pain Compliance - The use of the stimulus pain to control resistive behavior.
1. Stabilize body part
2. Use pressure/counter pressure
3. Use repetitive, loud verbal commands
4. Alleviate pressure when commands are obeyed
ii. Distraction Technique - Control techniques that weaken motor action by changing the thought process.
1. Distraction techniques should precede all escort position resistance
2. Primary distraction is the knee strike
3. Distraction will take less than three seconds
4. Follow up control technique
iii. Balance Displacement - Control techniques that displace balance through principles of leverage.
1. Distraction techniques will also serve as Balance Displacement techniques
2. Leverage should be used with pressure applied to the joints
3. Officer must destroy the suspect's center
4. Officer must be aware of his/her balance by controlling their own center
iv. Motor Dysfunction - Control striking techniques that over-stimulate motor nerves, causing temporary muscle impairment.
1. Strikes must be delivered to muscle mass
2. Strikes should be delivered using the Fluid Shock Wave Principle
3. Strikes should be delivered with total hip rotation
4. Lasts 30 seconds to several minutes
v. Stunning - Stimulation of overwhelming sensory input.
1. Average stun lasts 3-7 seconds
2. Stunning techniques require immediate follow up control
3. The suspect should be monitored and should receive medical attention if unconsciousness occurs.
a. Once the fighting platform has been established, it will remain constant throughout all movements made by the officer; it remains the same no matter which direction the officer moves, or which delivery system of control he/she is using.
i. Rearward Movement - from the established fighting platform, the officer's rear foot will move first, and the front foot next. Whatever distance that rear foot moves, the front foot must move the exact distance to maintain the balance and power of the stance.
ii. Forward Movement - from the established fighting platform, the officer's front foot will move first, the rear foot next. Whatever distance the front foot moves, the rear foot must move the exact distance to maintain the balance and power of the stance.
iii. Lateral Movement - from the established fighting platform, the foot placed in the lateral (side) direction the officer chooses to move is the foot that moves first, the opposite foot next. For example, lateral movement to the right means that the officer's right foot moves first, left foot next. Lateral movement to the left means that the officer's left foot moves first, right foot next. Whatever distance the lead foot moves, the other foot must move the exact distance to maintain the balance and power of the stance.
iv. Tactical "L" Pattern of Movement - the Tactical "L" movement is a combination of rearward movement with lateral movement. The officer's environment will determine which direction he/she will be able to move. From the established fighting platform, a Tactical "L" to the right means that the officer will take at least two steps to the rear and at least two steps laterally to the right. A Tactical "L" to the left means that the officer will take at least two steps to the rear and at least two steps laterally to the left.