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The mechanism in place for excretion of wastes include:

1. Respiratory- carbon dioxide
2. Digestive-solid waste
3. Urinary system- majority of metabolic waste

The urinary systems main organ is the__________.


A sophisticated filter that traps unwanted wastes for removal while recycling nutrients and water that our cells can use again


We concentrate our wastes into liquid called _____.


We collect urine into our _______ and then excrete it through our ______.

1) bladder
2) urethra

Components of the urinary system include:

1) kidney
2) ureter
3) bladder
4) urethra

A smooth, transparent membrane that is attached to the surface of the kidney

renal capsule

The indented region where the kidney curves inward is the :


How is the tissue of the kidney structurally modified to aid in filtration?

It has tubules and is porous

What is important functionally about transitional epithelium?

It allows for stretching

What is the function of the ureter?

Connects the kidneys to the bladder

What is the function of the urethra?

Transports urine from the bladder to exit the body.

Smooth membrane of the kidney surface?

renal capsule

portion of the kidney containing mostly collecting ducts?

minor calyx

portionof the kidney with most of the nephron structures?


flat cavity that is continuous with the ureter?

renal pelvis

cup shaped extension of the pelvis. Encircles the pyramid?

renal colomn

superficial region of the kidney tissue?


What is the function of fat that surrounds the kidneys?


What organs function is to regulate the bodys fluid volume, mineral composition and acidity by excreting and reabsorbing water and inorganic electrolytes


Name some ways in which your body excretes waste?

1) exhaling
2) sweating
3) urination
4) bowel movements

What is the functional unit of a kidney?


What does a nephron contain?

glomerulus- where urine begins
tubule- where urine is concentrated and collected

How is the tissue of the renal pyramids modified to carry out its function?

It has secreting and collecting ducts system

How is the density of the tissue of the renal cortex related to its function?

It allows for ultrafiltration

How does the structure of the reanl medulla aid in its function?

It is split into a number of sections and allows it to branch into interlobular arterioles

How is the tissue found in the renal pelvis modified to carry out its function?

It is covered by transitional epithelium which allow for it to stretch and act as a funnel

The digestive system is responsible for what two processes?

1) Digestion
2) Absorption

The breaking down of food into usable particles?


The uptake of the broken down particles for delivery to the cells?


A long tube of interconnected structures that carries food into our bodies, digests it, absorbs it and excretes the wastes that are left over.

Alimentary canal

What does the alimentary canal consist of?

1) mouth
2) pharynx
3) esophagus
4) stomach
5) small intestine
6) large intestine
7) rectum
8) anus

What does the small intestine consist of?

1) duodenum
2) jejunum
3) ilium

What is another name for the large intestine?


The accessory structures that aid in digestion by providn enzymes to break down food are?

1) salivary glands
2) liver
3) gall bladder
4) pancreas

Are the accessory structures involved in the transport of food directly?


This takes place within the intestines and walls of the these organs are modified to increase surface area so that more food comes in contact witht the absorptive membrane for what reason?

To increase the rate of absorption as well as efficiency

The ability of the digestive system to do its job depends greatly on the presence of?


Proteins that are used as catalysts in bilogical reactions are called?


In the case of digestion, enzymes help break down _____ found in food into smaller particles that are easier to absorb into blood.


What do macromolecules consist of?

1) carbohydrates
2) proteins
3) lipids
4) nucleic acids

All chemical reactions require ______ to proceed.


The digestive system produces a series of enzymes targeted at specific molecules. Theses enzymes do what?

1) reduce the amount of energy needed to break a bond
2) which increased the rate at which molecules can be broken down

The breaking down of macromolecules is done through a reaction called ________.


Wall layer: Mucosa

major functions:
1) secretion
2) absorption of foods
3) protection against bacteria

Wall layer: Submucosa

major functions:
1) to support the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract

Wall layer: Muscularis externa

major functions:
1) prevent food from traveling backward and the longitudinal layer shortens the tract

Wall layer: Serosa or Adventitia

major functions:
1) provides structure and support for the organs

What are the structural modifications in the salivary glands that allow them to carry out their function?

1) The largest is the parotid gland.
2) the submandibular gland empties contents by the submandibular duct

Where can you find Kupffer cells and what do they do?

1) in the liver lining the walls of the sinusoids the form part of the reticuloendothelial system (RES)
2) They remove debris from the blood

How is the ilium dtructurally different than the duodenum?

1)The duodenum is the part of the small intestine where food enters the stomach
2) the ilium is the second part of the intestine

What do the 3 salivary glands have in common?

1) produce saliva
2) secrete amylase

How can you distinguish between the hard palate and the soft palate?

Hard palate- 1) made of bone 2) in the front of mouth 3) hold the teeth
Soft palate- 1) made of muscle 2) in rear of mouth 3) aids in swallowing and allows for yawning 4) clears the eustacian tube

Where can you find rugae and what is their function?

1) in the interior surface of the stomach
2) they allow the stomach to expand and contract in relation to volume of food and fluid

What structure empties enzymes produced int the pancreas into the duodenum?

the pancreatic ducts

Besides the digestive system, what other system does the pancreas belong to?

Endocrine system

What is the structure of the pancreas and how is it modified to carry out its function?

1) elongated and lives behind the stomach
2) It secretes insulin and glucagon

What are teeth made of ?.

1) enamel
2) dentin
3) cementum
4) pulp

Describe the structure of the stomach and how it is modified to carry out its functions.

1) It is located on the left side of the abdominopelvic cavity
2) The components of the stomach work depending on the contents coming in and out of the stomach

Describe the structure of the intestines and how they are modified to carry out their functions.

1) They are coiled together and flattened out when their is nothing in them but when peristalsys occures and there is stuff in them they blow up like a balloon

The chemical reaction or process which a chemical compound reacts with water. This is the type of reaction that is used to break down polymers. Water is added in this reaction.


Enzyme: Salivary Amylase
Organ producing it:
Site of action:
What does it work on? (substrate):
Optimal PH?:

1) salivary glands
2) mouth
3) starch
4) 6.8

Enzyme: Trypsin
Organ producing it:
Site of action:
What does it work on? (substrate):
Optimal PH?:

1) pancreas
2) duodenum
3) amino acids
4) 8

Enzyme: Pancreatic Lipase
Organ producing it:
Site of action:
What does it work on? (substrate):
Optimal PH?:

1) pancreas
2) duodenum
3) fat molecules
4) 8

How does trypsin work on proteins?

It works to break down the elastin fibers in the protein structure

How does salivary amylase work on food like crackers?

It catalizes the breakdown of starch into maltise

Fat digestion requires two steps. What are the steps and the enzymes used to accomplish them?

1) Help

Pumonary ventilation or "breathin" consists of two phases:

2) expiration

______ and _____ are exchanged in the alveoli of the lungs through diffusion into and out of the blood filled capillaries that surround each alveolus>

1) oxygen (into)
2) carbon dioxide (out of)

The depth and speed in which you breathe is determined by what?

amount of CO2 in your blood

The repiratory center in the __________ of the brain stem contains sensors that detect the amount of CO2 that you have in your bloodstream.

Medulla oblongata

The amount of air we inhale and exhale with each breath is called?

tidal volume (TV)

_____ provides enough oxygen for our bodies to function at rest.

tidal volume

If you inhale and take the deepest breath that you can and then exhale with force as much air out as possible you can estimate your _______

vital capacity (VC)

The total volume of air your lungs can hold?

vital capacity (VC)

The amount of air that can be forcibly inspired above normal inhalation.

inspititory reserve volume (IRV)

The amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal exhalation.

expiritory reserve volume (ERV)

Vital capacity is calculated by?


The amount of air left over and cannot be forcefully exhaled from the lungs

residual volume (RV)

Total lung capacity is calculated by?


The amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal exhalation

Inspiratory capacity (IC)

The amount of air remaining in the lungs after a tidal exhalation

Functional residual capacity (FRC)

To calculate Functional residual capacity?


How does smoking effect your vital capacity?

It constricts your vessels and blocks the amount of air flow going into the lungs. It decreases lung capacity

How does exercise effect the amount of carbon dioxide released by the blood?

The body has a greater oxygen demand therefore you're inhaling more oxygen and exhaling more carbon dioxide

Why do your respirations go up as you exercise?

Your body tissues require more oxygen. therefore, you are inhaling more times to increase oxygen intake and exhale more CO2

Why do athletes prefer to train in high altitude location? What effect does this training have on respiration?

1) The higher the altitude, the thinner the air.
2) The body then produces more red blood cells. This supplies more oxygen to the tissues in the body when returned to normal altitude

What is the lymphatic system made up of?

1) lymphatic vessels
2) lymphatic tissue
3) lymph nodes
4) other ordgans such as the tonsils, thymus & spleen

What are the two major functions the lymphatic system carries out?

1) transports tissue fluid (lymph) to the blood vessels
2) protects the body by removing foreign material such as bacteria

The cells of the lymphatic system are specialized to protect and provide ______ against foreign invaders.


Lymphatic structures include a series of ______ that transport lymph and run parallel to the circulatory vessels

lymphatic vessels

Bean shaped filters found periodically through the network of vessels

lymph nodes

Why is the term immunity a misnomer?

Since immunity is a function rather than a set of anatomical organs that we find in other systems

Our ______is built through exposure to foreign cells and material throughout our lives.


The cells that provide us with our immune response are formed in the _____ and _____ throughout our childhood.

1) thymus gland
2) bone marrow

The ____ cells come from the Thymus and the ____ cells come from bone marrow

1) T-cells
2) B-cells

These cells become ______ by developing specific proteins for recognizing foreign invaders


The immune response has 3 important characteristics:

1) memory
2) specificity
3) ability to differentiate our bodies from foreign invaders

______ is particularly important becuase it provides us with defense against invaders we have already encountered


We can "train" our immune response throught the use of ______, which expose us to foreign agents without illness setting in.


A foreign material which triggers an immune response?


Antigens can be any ____ or ____.

1) protein
2) many polysaccharides

_______ are responsible for tackling antigens head on and they do so by differentiating themselves to match specific antigens.


Some B-cells will differentiate into _____ that form _____ .

1) plasma cells
2) antibodies

__________ match up with antigens and inactivate the foreign cells thus providing immunity.


The T-cells are more diverse and come in 3 forms:

1) Cytotoxic T-cells
2) Helper T-cells
3) Suppressor T-celss

Directly attack virus infected tissue cells


Activate B-cells and cytotoxic T-cells

Helper T-cells

Can inhibit the immune response

Suppressor T-cells

Since T-cells act more directly on body tissues they are said to initiate ________.

cellular immunity

What are the 2 major functions of lymph nodes:

1) production of lymphocytes
2) Filters lymph that runs through the network of vessels

What are 2 functions of the spleen?

1) Removal of abnormal blood cells and other blood components by phagocytosis
2) the storage iron recycled for red blood cells
3) The iniation of immune responses by B-cells and T-cells in response to antigens in circulating blood

What is the function of tonsils?

1) trap bacteria and viruses which you breathe in
2) have antibodies and immune cells that help to kill germs and prevent lung and throat infection

What are the structural similarities found in lymph nodes, spleen and tonsils?

1) they have a capsule
2) they are rounded organs with an internal parenchyma of lymphoid cells

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