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52 terms

IB Chemistry Acids and Bases

HL material with some review of SL material
STUDY
PLAY
increases
The value of Kw _____________ as temperature increases.
14
pH + pOH = ?
pH
-log[H+]
14
pKa + pKb = ?
alkaline
Salts made from a weak acid and strong base are ____________ in solution.
acidic
Salts made from a strong acid and weak base are _____________ in solution.
neutral
Salts made from a strong acid and strong base are _____________ in solution.
size, charge
The acidity of salts depends on the _________ and _________ of the cation.
buffer
A solution that resists changes in pH when a small amount of strong acid or strong base is added
equimolar
A buffer consists of a weak acid or base and a(n) ______________ amount of its salt.
pKa
The pH is equal to the _________ when the concentration of an acid and its conjugate base are equal.
The dissociation of HA is minimal.
What assumption is made in problems involving weak acid dissociation?
lower
The weaker an acid is, the ___________ the value of the Ka is.
ammonium chloride
Example of a buffer: ammonia and __________
sodium ethanoate
Example of a buffer: ethanoic acid and ___________
volumes, concentrations
To prepare a buffer, combine equal ___________ of equal _____________ of an acid and its salt.
one half
To prepare a buffer, combine a certain number of moles of a weak acid with ___________ the number of moles of a strong base.
charge density
Salts whose cation has a high ______________ will be acidic.
equivalence point
In titrations, the name given to the point at which an equal number of moles of acid/base have been combined
neutral
A strong acid titrated with strong base gives a(n) ______________ solution.
basic
A weak acid titrated with strong base gives a(n) _____________ solution.
acidic
Strong acid titrated with weak base gives a(n) ______________ solution.
buffer region
Part of a titration curve where the solution maintains the most constant pH (pKa = pH, the amount of base equal to half the amount required to reach equivalence has been added).
indicator
A weak acid or weak base whose salt is a different color; used in titrations
any
Which indicator should be used for the titration of a strong acid with a strong base?
phenolphthalein
Which indicator should be used for the titration of a weak acid with a strong base?
methyl orange
Which indicator should be used for the titration of a strong acid with a weak base?
equivalence point
An indicator should be chosen with a pKa as close to the pH of the _____________ as possible (within one pH unit).
colorless, pink
Phenolphthalein is _________ in acid and __________ in base.
red, yellow
Methyl orange is _________ in acid and __________ in base.
HIn (aq)
The symbol used to represent an indicator is _______.
1.00 x 10 ^ -14
Kw = [H+][OH-] = ?
[H+][A-]/[HA]
For the dissociation of a weak acid (HA (aq) <----> H+ (aq) + A- (aq)), Ka = ?
Bronsted-Lowry base
A substance that can accept a proton
Bronsted-Lowry acid
A substance that can donate a proton
Lewis acid
An electron pair acceptor
Lewis base
An electron pair donor
HCl, HNO3, H2SO4
Three examples of strong acids
NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2
Three examples of strong bases
CH3COOH, H2CO3
Two examples of weak acids
NH3, amines
Two examples of weak bases
neutralization
Acids participate in _____________ reactions with bases.
CO2, H2O
Acids react with carbonates and hydrogen carbonates to produce __________ and __________.
H2, salt
Acids react with metals above hydrogen in the reactivity series to produce __________ and a ___________.
diprotic
An acid is ____________ if it dissociates to give 2 mol of hydrogen ions in solution (for a strong one of these, [H+] will be twice the concentration of the acid).
H3O+ (aq) + A- (aq)
HA (aq) + H2O (aq) <----> ?
Kw
Ka x Kb = ?
aluminum, iron (III)
Two examples of ions with a high charge density that form acidic salts
BH+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
B (aq) + H2O (aq) <----> ?
[BH+][OH-]/[B]
For the dissociation of a weak base, Kb = ?
higher
The weaker an acid is, the _____________ the pKa is.
Ka x ([HA]/[A-])
The [H+] of a buffer solution = ?