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Ch 23 - Life Span Development -UNIT 1 (infants, toddlers, preschoolers)
Terms in this set (151)
What has helped people stay healthy and live longer?
Improved sanitation, medication, immunizations, exercise and nutrition
Life expectancy is
the number of years an individual will probably live, based on the average for others with similar characteristics.
factors that affect life expectancy....
- Sex (females out live males by 5 yrs)
- Socioeconomic status (incomes greater $25,000 -> live 3-7 yrs longer)
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
infant mortality rate (IMR)
refers to the number of deaths before age 1 yr
infant mortality rate of African Americans is much higher (double) than...
what are the 8 life span stages?
-infancy: birth - 1 yr
-toddler: 1 - 3 yrs
-preschool: 3 - 5 yrs
-school age: 6 - 12 yrs
-adolescence: 13 - 19 yrs
-early adulthood: 20 - 40 yrs
-middle adulthood: 40-60 yrs
-late adulthood: 65 yrs and over
Does each stage experience the same milestones?
-some may have delayed development or accelerated achievement of skills or behaviors
what is the goal of studying life span?
to enable better understanding and improved interaction and communication with individuals at various stages of development.
Continuous change occurs during growth and development. What types of changes can be expected?
physical -> replacement of cells, tissues, and fluids
cognitive -> change in cognition, communication, emotions, behavior, and feelings
Growth refers to
an increase in size and may involve the entire being or parts within.
development refers to
function and the gradual process of change and differentiation, from simple to complex
Cephalocaudal is defined as
growth and development that proceeds from the head toward the feet.
proximodistal refers to
growth and development that originates in the center of the body and moves toward the outside
what are growth patterns controlled by?
threadlike structures in the nucleus of a cell that function in the transmission of genetic information
-they the blueprint for all inherited traits
When does development begin?
with conception (fertilization)
-the union of the sperm and ovum
the zygote is
the developing ovum from the time it is fertilized until, as a blastocyst, it is implanted in the uterus.
after fertilization, it contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46
why would genetic testing be suggested to some couples?
factors related to age, medical history, and ethnicity
what is the basic unit of society
what are the basic functions inherent to the family unit?
the family is the first socializing agent for teaching children what?
society's expectations and limitations
Mother, father and children living as a unit
closely related people of several generations
a family in which only one parent is present to care for the children
consists of a biological parent, a stepparent, and the children of one or both parents
social contract and cohabitation
Made up of man and woman living together without legal commitment but sharing roles and responsibilities.
Family group made up of same-sex adults who share bonds of emotional commitment and roles of childrearing.
Parents and one or more children that are permanently and legally added to the family; these families may be nuclear, single-parent, blended or extended family structures.
families headed by grandparents
****variety of reasons for increase in grandfamilies include:
responsible for care, supervision, and nurturing of children in their charge
-26% of children are placed with family members
-many never return to biological families.
-many "age out" as they reach legal adulthood.
Family patterns refer to
the way in which family members relate to each other
autocratic family pattern
the relationships are unequal
-parents attempt to control the children with strict rigid rules and expectations
patriarchal family pattern
the adult male (or males of the family) usually assumes the dominant role.
-control finances and makes most decisions
matriarchal family pattern
AKA: matrifocal family
-the adult female(s) assumes primary dominance in areas of child care and homemaking and in financial decision making
democratic family pattern
the adult members function as equals
-children are treated with respect and recognized as individuals
-the style encourages joint decision making and recognizes and supports the uniqueness of each individual member
stages of family development
-Engagement or commitment stage: plans to marry
-Establishment stage: from wedding - birth of 1st child
-Expectant Stage: conception - pregnancy
-Parenthood: begins at birth of 1st child
-Disengagement stage: grown kids leave home
-Senescence stage: last stage of life cycle
engagement or commitment stage
plans to marry
from wedding to birth of 1st child
conception to pregnancy
-the agreement a woman makes to be artificially inseminated, voluntarily or for a fee, to bear a child, and then relinquish the parenting rights to the baby's natural father or another couple
begins at birth of 1st child
*this transition is a major event
-parents experience a great deal of anxiety
-problems arise due to lack of time:
***less adult time together
grown kids leave home
-parenting does not end
- although grown children do not live with parents they still require emotional and (at times) financial guidance
last stage of life cycle
what are the various stressors the affect the family unit?
- chronic illness
- working mothers (children can become "latchkey")
*stress affects EVERYONE in the family, of all ages
common signs of stress in children
* mood swings
* change in eating or sleeping patterns
* frequent stomachaches, headaches, or other unexplained somatic symptoms
* excessive clinging to partens
* thumb sucking
* regression (behavior of younger years)
tips for divorcing parents:
- encourage children to talk about their feelings
- do not use children as pawns or "go-between"
- never speak negatively about ex-spouse in front of children
- seek professional help if children need additional support
Erik Erikson (American psychoanalyst)
-viewed life as a series of developmental stages, each accompanied by a developmental task or challenge.
Psychosocial stage: INFANCY
* trust vs mistrust
- birth to 1
-learning to trust or not trust the adults around them to care for their basic needs
Psychosocial stage: TODDLER
* autonomy vs shame and doubt
- 1 to 3
- learn to become self-sufficient or doubt their ability
Psychosocial stage: PRESCHOOL
* initiative vs guilt
- 4 to 6
- children understake adult-like activities (sometimes going beyond set limits) and become guilty
Psychosocial stage: SCHOOL AGE
* industry vs inferiority
- 7 to 11
- learn to be competent and productive or feel inferior and unable to do any task well
Psychosocial stage: ADOLESCENCE
* identity vs role confusion
- 12 to 19
- try to figure out "who am I?" They establish sexual, ethnic, and career identities or are confused about what future roles to play
Psychosocial stage: YOUNG ADULTHOOD
* intimacy vs isolation
- 20 to 44
- seek companionship and love with another person or become isolated from others
Psychosocial stage: MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
* generativity vs stagnation
- 45 to 65
- adults are proactive, performing meaningful work and raising a family, or become stagnant and inactive
Psychosocial stage: LATE ADULTHOOD
* ego integrity vs despair
- adults try to make sense out of their lives, either seeing life as meaningful and whole or despairing at goals never reached and questions never answered
Jean Piaget (Swiss theorist)
- First comprehensive theory of cognitive development based on systematic observation of infant's behavior
Cognitive stage: SENSORIMOTOR
Birth to 2 yrs
-uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world (reflexes)
-begins to interact with environment
-learns object permanence (object still there even when out of site)
-develops thinking and goal-directed behavior
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Cognitive stage: PREOPERATIONAL THOUGHT
2 to 6 yrs
- develops egocentric thinking
- uses trial and error to develop new traits
- conceptualizes time in present terms only
- use symbols to represent objects
- develops more logical, intuitive thinking
- gains imaginative ability
Cognitive stage: CONCRETE OPERATIONAL
7 to 11 yrs
- understands and applies logical operations
- has more realistic views/understands those views
- improves use of memory
- focuses on more than 1 task; develops logical, socialized thoughts
- recognizes cause-and-effect relationships
- identifies behavior outcome
-understands basic ideas of conversation and number classification
Cognitive stage: FORMAL THOUGHT
- uses a systematic, scientific problem-solving approach
- recognizes past, present, and future
- able to think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts
- shows interest in ethics, politics, and all social and moral issues as ability to take a broader and more theoretic approach to experience increases
humans have an innate capacity to learn what?
During infancy, how is language learned?
the brain is able to sort out basic sounds and to extract from sentences the most meaningful elements
during early childhood, how is language learned?
the brain's language-acquisition ability becomes even more sophisticated.
Speech requires intact physiologic functioning of:
1. respiratory system
2. speech control centers in cerebral cortex
3. articulation and resonance structures of mouth & nasal cavities
1. an intact and discriminating auditory apparatus
3. a need to communicate
all children go through the same sequence of stages in language and speech development, unless....
abnormal conditions are present
language sequence of 3 month old
1 yr old language development
- recognition of words
- 2 to 3 words
- they produce HOLO phrases (1 word sentences (ex) 'up')
2 yr old language development
- 2 word or 3 word phrases in context
- 300 word vocab
uses "I", "me", and "you"
3 yr old language development
- 4 or 5 word sentences
- 900 word vocab
uses "what", "who", and "where"
4 to 5 yr old language development
- has a 1500 to 2100 word vocab
- grammatical forms used correctly
6 to 7 yr old language development
- 3000 word vocab
- comprehends "if", "because", and "why"
a rule of thumb about the evolution of early speech acquistion is....
the number of words in an average response usually corresponds to the child's chronological age
does one type of child progress more than the other?
- girls advance more rapidly in language development than boys
- first born progresses faster than those born after
Growth - INFANCY
1 to 12 months
-change occurs rapidly the first 6 months of life
-growth occur cephalocaudal and proximodistal
from head to toe
"Near to far"
Extremities grow later than head, chest, and trunk
weight gain in infants
- gain 1.5 lbs until age 5 months
- infant double their birth weight by 4 - 6 months
- by 1 yr, birth weight as tripled
AVERAGE WEIGHT: 21.5 lbs
first weight gain is due to fat: provides insulation and a source of nourishment to draw from if food intakes decreases
by 8 months, baby's weight gain is due to bone and muscle mass
height increases 1 inch per month/ first 6 months
by 12 months (1 yr) birth length has increased by 50 %
apical rates slow down in infancy to
120 beats per min
-count for a full min.
respiratory rates slow down in infancy to
resting respiratory at 12 months --> 30 breaths per min
Blood pressure reading of infants
gradually increases at 12 months to 90/60
when does teething begin?
5 to 6 months
SIGNS OF TEETHING:
- edematous red gums
- excessive drooling
- change in stooling
* teething begins 3 to 4 weeks before appearance of the tooth
*dental hygiene very important
primary dentition schedule
6 months: teething begins, eruption of 2 lower central incisors
7 months: eruption of upper central incisors
9 months: eruption of upper lateral incisors
11 months: eruption of lower lateral incisors
12 months: 6-8 teeth present
24 months: 16 teeth present
30 months: completion of primary dentition (20 teeth)
motor development in infants
2 months --> able to hold head up while in prone position
4 to 6 months --> hold head up steadily while in prone position
7 months --> able to sit without support
begin with crawling (7 m)....creeping (9 m)....standing and walking on own (8 to 15 m)
Infant obtain gratification when?
when their basic needs are met
when does a child begin to recognize and imitate
4 to 8 months
-reaching and grasping are also improved
- at 4 months they recognize the voices of the most familiar people in their lives
- at 8 months, they begin to show separation anxiety
what do infant require nutritionally
breast milk and/or formula is the only food babies need until age 4 to 6 months
signs of underfeed infants
lack of satisfaction
little weight gain
persistent wrinkling of the skin
signs of overfed infants
vomting after feeding
frequent watery stools
what mineral do infants NOT require for the fist 5 to 6 months?
full term infants have enough stored iron to last for the first 5 to 6 months
infants require what vitamins, due to their growing bones?
how should food be introduced to infants?
one new food item at a time
this is due to allergy developments. it's easier to know which food caused allergy if only one item is provided.
what foods are avoided the first 6 months because they are allergy causing?
what foods are introduced first
what foods are introduced last?
avoid choking causing foods
in the first 4 months of life do infants require water?
formula and breast milk provide sufficient fluids
-additional water may cause water intoxication, failure to thrive, and hyponatremia
when should weaning begin in an infant
by 9 months.....1 sippy cup should replace a bottle at a time
how long do newborns and infants sleep?
18 hrs out of 24
-sleep periods consist of short nap-like periods
at what age do sleep patterns emerge?
nap and wake times are established
by 1 year, infants sleep 12 hours and take 1 nap
what does crying during sleep usually signify
discomfort or illness and calls for investigation
-never ignore these signs
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
This disorder produces sudden, abrupt death with no identifiable warning signs.
formerly known as 'crib death'
peaks at 2 to 3 months after birth
steps to reduce SIDs
1) back to sleep: place infants on their back to sleep
2) avoid exposure to cigarette smoke
3) avoid use of soft bedding or pillows
4) keep room well ventilated
5) breastfeed if possible
6) maintain regular medical checkups for infants
why is play important to children?
it's a form of learning
play that captures the pleasures of using the senses and motor abilities
the type of play at infancy
-infant plays alone and does not interact with or need other children to play
Developmental tasks of infancy
-establish trust/meaningful relationships
-recognize primary caregiver
-develops attachment behavior
-develops exploration skill
-develops communication (vocalization/nonverbal)
-develops muscular control, eye/hand coordination, object manipulation
-mobility: crawling, creeping, cruising, walking
-patterns of living established: eating, sleeping, elimination habits
-develops independent living skills: self feeding, walking, undressing, communication of needs
Toddler physical growth
growth is slower than in infancy.
-proceeds from head to foot, from center outward, from general to specific movements
- chubby look of infancy gone by 12 to 15 months
-toddler's body proportions result in top-heavy appearance
--rapid growth in extremities and slowed growth in trunk
-exaggerated lordosis and protruding abdomen disappears as abdominal muscles strengthen
by age 2.5 all _________________________ teeth are present
routine dental examinations and tooth brushing are vital
toddler vital signs
pulse: 90 to 120 beats per minutes
blood pressure: 80 to 100 (systolic) /64 (diastolic)
temperature: 98 to 99
Respirations: 20 to 30 breathes per minute
many gross motor skills emerge during toddler-hood
- climbing stairs (2 yrs)
- hopping (3 yrs)
- holding on tight
FINE MOTOR SKILLS:
- scribbling (2 yrs)
- copying a circle (3 yrs)
toilet training toddlers
physiological and psychological maturity is not reached until 18-24 months
neuromuscluar control and cognitive ability to understand what is expected of them, and language skill to communicate need is vital to toilet training.
** deemphasize accidents; never make the child feel inadequate.
** praise success and ignore accidents
** a sense of shame develops if child is made to feel inadequate
Psychosocial development of a toddler
Erikson sees the toddler as struggling with autonomy (self-control) in opposition to shame and doubt
toddler is struggling to become independent
word "no" is prevalent in vocab because it gives a sense of control
ritualistic behavior is prevalent in toddlers
rituals decrease toddler's anxiety by helping them known what to expect
discipline is a necessary means of teaching limit setting and impulse control
stay consistent with rules
say and do what you mean -->"follow through"
positive role modeling
promptness --> discipline immediately after incident
express trust in child
remove temptation --> prevention
reinforcement --> offer positive reinforcement for acceptable behavior
while toddlers struggle for independence, what do they seek?
attention and approval
toddlers are in the preoperational stage
use language as a tool to meet needs; able to think mentally; use trial and error to discover new traits and characteristics
what type of thinking is a toddler in?
toddlers are demanding, wanting things to go their way
communication and language of toddlers
cognitive and language development of toddlers make it possible for them to express their wishes
common words: 'no' and 'me'
identifies objects by use.
by 2.5 yr, how many words does a toddler know
able to make 2 word sentences
language development of a 3.5 yr old toddler
able to answer questions and use brief sentences, even recite commercials
900 word vocab
what are the nutiritional requirements for toddlers
daily diet consists of 1 serving from meat group, 2 or more servings from veggie group, and at least 2 servings from fruit, cereal , or breads
- 2 cups of food from diary group daily
if a toddler east too few solid foods, what is the concern
what is the serving size for toddlers
a general guideline for serving size is 1 tablespoon of each solid food for each year of age
how much sleep is recommended for toddlers
12 hr out of 24 because they spend a great deal of energy in play and exploration
toddlers also require 1 nap time during the day
developmental tasks of the toddler
-recognizes self as a separate person, tolerates separation from caregiver, expresses own ideas & needs
-increased attention span
-develops communication skills
-develops self control skills
-masters toilet training basics
-achieves independent mobility
-can feed, dress, toilet and manage simple tasks
improves muscle coordination, balance, and muscle strength.
the play style they exhibit is "parallel play"
3 to 5 years
physical growth of preschoolers
most obvious growth is size and shape
most important growth is maturation of the nervous system
least obvious growth is the mastery of motor skills
during preschool yrs, growth tends to be
slow and steady
preschooler looks taller and thinner
average weight gain is less than 5 lbs/year
linear growth is 2 to 2.5 inches/year
height of 4 yr old is double birth length
preschools refine their gross motor skills...
jumping, throwing, running and climbing improves dramatically.
fine motor skills still prove difficult for preschooler, like...
tying shoes and using utensils; putting puzzles together
adults must continue to encourage these skills
young preschoolers have vision that is
this improves and most children achieve visual accuracy by age 4
a yearly checkup is vital
corrective measure: eye patch on the good eye to improve strength of lazy eye
****necessary to prevent blindness
vital signs of preschoolers
heart rate: 70 - 110 beats per minute
respiratory: slows down to 23
BP: 110/60 mm Hg
temperature: 97 to 99
psychosocial development of preschoolers
Erikson: initiative vs guilt
-energetic learners, despite physical abilities
-guilt when they feel they have misbehaved or failed
-good-bad orientation; actions taken based on result of reward or punishment
Role play: pretend to be grown up and try out various roles
child's "superego" (conscience) functions as a censor of behavior
gender identification occurs at this stage
strong sibling bonding occurs
cognitive and intellectual development of preschooler
Piaget: child is at preoperational stage, meaning the child uses symbols to represent objects
between 4 and 7 yrs, intuitive thinking develops and the child begins to think logically
child viewpoint is absolute: black and white, good and bad
Preschool lies tend to be....
magical and fanciful; very imaginative
common fears manifest during preschool stage...
fear of thunder, lightening, dark, pain, abandonment, and monsters
communication and language development of preschoolers
by 3, children can carry on conversations
pronunciation is still developing, but language becomes more adult-like
if no communication occurs by 3 yrs, evaluation of child is necessary to detect underlying problems like hearing loss or other pathologoical speech disturbances
nutrition of preschoolers
continues to need high levels of protein.
dietary calcium and phosphorus are vital still because of the increasing neutralization of their teeth and bones
BMI of preschoolers
those at or above 85th percentile and lower than 95th percentile, of the same gender and age, are considered overweight.
those with a BMI above the 95th percentile are considered obese
overweight infants are more likely to be overweight later in life
genetic factors may predispose individuals to obesity
***children adopt parent's eating habits
***model good eating habits, provide healthy food, and encourage physical activity
play style of preschoolers
play becomes cooperative.
-child shares, takes turns, interacts with playmates
-enjoy activities such as cooking, shopping, and driving.
through dramatic play, child tries different roles and identifies with adult models.
Imaginary friends are increasingly common between:
children feel a sense of control over what happens in their "imaginary world" and slowly learn to deal with reality through practice and experimentation.
children in preschool stage become more coordinated and....
want to begin participating in more organized games.
4-5 yrs of age they learn to ride bikes
Preschoolers: safety and emergency
teach children their full names, addresses, and telephone numbers
-children need to learn how to use a phone
discipline and limit setting are just as important as
love and security
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
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