bio test 3
Terms in this set (37)
your bodys defense against infectious disease
disease causing agents
doesnt change much from the time you are born and its compnents attack pathogens indiscriminately
continually develops over your lifetime as it encounters and attacks specific pathogens
strictly internal (only vertebrates have it)
external innate defenses
on the frontline, preventing pathogens from getting deep inside the body
Skin, mucous membranes
internal innate defenses
confronting pathogens that make it past external
phagocytic cells, natural killer cells, defensive proteins, inflammatory response
Composed of a network of vessels, ducts, nodes, and organs. Provides defense against infection.
injured cells release histamine causing nearby vessels to dilate and leak fluid into the wounded tissue
protein that coats surfaces of microbes making them more susceptible to engulfment
2 main functions of the lymphatic system
1. return tissue fluid to the circulatory system
2. fight infection
site where lymphocytes multiply during times of infection
2 types of lymphocytes
T cells and B cells
Cells created in the thymus that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body.
Cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and destroying invading bacteria and viruses.
The process by which an antigen selectively binds to and activates only those lymphocytes bearing receptors specific for the antigen.
short-lived cells that take effect immediately against the antigen and any pathogens producing that antigen
a long-lived lymphocyte capable of responding to a particular antigen on its reintroduction, long after the exposure that prompted its production.
Cytotoxic T cells
A type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
-only T cells that actually kill infected cells
Helper T cells
do not directly carry out attacks on pathogens but aid in stimulating both the B cells and the cytotoxic T cells in their responses
-only recognizes a specific antigen
substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen
Identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S subphase of interphase.
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions
The second gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, cell prepares to divide
mitosis- nucleus and its contents divide evenly in2 daughter nuclei
cytokinesis- the cytoplasm is divided in two
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
cell cycle control system
send stop and go ahead signals
abnormally growing masses of body
An abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body.
An abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor.
code for proteins that stimulate normal cell growth and division
tumor suppressor genes
code for proteins that inhibit the cell cycle and promote apoptosis
acting against tumors in vitro (lab culture)
acting against tumors in animals
stimulating the immune system to fight against cancer cells
typical cell has 46 chromosomes