PSY 360 - Chapter 7 - Exam #3
Terms in this set (46)
Philosophies of social welfare
ideas, activities and organizations that provide people with income and other social benefits
donations or charity to a designated recipient
Government assumes responsibility for the poor;
As of 1996, U.S. program requires recipients to work;
Research on public welfare success is mixed
19th century/industrial revolution concept - government insurance in support of those who have contributed to the system
Why can defining child maltreatment be challenging?
cultural differences in punishment and parenting
What is most common source of child maltreatment?
Abuse increases later risk for...
substance abuse, eating disorders, depression, suicide, some chronic diseases
(T/F) Abuse negatively affects brain development and ability to form healthy relationships later
Root causes of child maltreatment
unrealistic parental expectations
dysfunctional care giving or lack of parenting skills
parental substance abuse
community and neighborhood characteristics
What community and neighborhood characteristics contribute to child maltreatment?
lack of community identity
no sense of community
distrust of neighbors or government officials
limited ability of neighbors to help each other
One Prevention prevention program
nurse visitation to poor, unmarried, adolescent, first time mothers
-educate adolescents on child development
-encourage involvement of family and friends
-develop linkages with community
Is One Prevention Prevention Program research based?
Yes - demonstrates reduction in abuse. 15-year results point to long-term effects
Program does not dampen the effects of other family violence
(T/F) In families where children are being abused, there is also a greater tendency for violence among adults in the family to exist (intimate partner violence)
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is more common against
deaths - 1,510 in 2005
78% female, 22% male
Root Causes of IPV
early parenthood (fathers age 21 are 3x more likely to be abuser)
(T/F) Fathers by age 21 are 3x more likely to be an abuser
Prevention of IPV
relationship-based programs -- teach conflict resolution, decision-making, nonviolent communication skills; foster awareness of power dynamics and abuse in intimate relationships
community-based interventions -- Domestic Violence Shelters
Example of community-based IPV intervention
domestic violence shelters
45% of women killed in IPV....
were trying to leave
Approximately ____ of teen pregnancies are unplanned
Sexual behavior and contraceptive use of pregnant compared to non-pregnant teens
sexual behavior is not different, but less likely to use contraceptives
Is there evidence that welfare causes teen pregnancy?
Contextual causes of teen pregnancy
alienation from society
media and peer pressure
lack of social support (in family or community)
lack of social capital
Are abstinence only sex ed programs effective?
What programs are most effective in preventing teen pregnancy?
Comprehensive programs -- provide information on contraception, address contextual factors
Teen Pregnancy - Primary Prevention Program
Escuelitas - After School Program
Escuelitas - After School Program
- offers experiences to encourage academic, personal, cultural and social achievements
- provides academic tutoring
- holds group discussions about Hispanic culture, importance of education, etc.
- presents regional workshops for the girls and their families
- invites guest speakers and positive role models
** PRELIMINARY FINDINGS -- none of the teens has dropped out of school or become pregnant
Hispanic Cultural Considerations for program design
Hispanic concepts of:
- Familismo - loyalty to extended family
- Personalismo - formality of friendship
- Respecto - formal but warm relationships with authority
Teen Pregnancy - Secondary Prevention Program
- targets teens already pregnant
- encourages them to continue their education
- provides info on good parenting skills
- prevents further pregnancies
Secondary Prevention Program - The Second Change Club
- uses peer support and education
- offers info on career issues
- teaches good parenting skills
- includes health care for the teen mother and her child
** QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH has discovered results in fewer subsequent pregnancies
- People experience longer life expectancies such that the number of people 65 and older has tripled
- Largely ignored population in community psychology
- Most elderly prefer to live (and die) in their own homes, not in hospitals or nursing homes
- Separation of young and old in societies serves to increase stereotyping of the elderly
(T/F) Elder abuse is an underreported problem
(TRUE) -- estimated that for every 1 case of elder abuse, neglect or exploitation reported, about 5 more go unreported
Between 1 and 2 million Americans age 65+ have been injured, exploited or otherwise mistreated by someone on whom they depended for care and protection
Prevention of Elderly Abuse
- provide social support to increase morale, buffer losses and slow deterioration (can include informal networks, confidants)
- increase sense of self-control
- enhance feelings of empowerment
**feelings of empowerment and self control increase happiness and longevity
Causes of Homelessness
- poverty and destitution
- unemployment (with up to 33% recently employed)
- inadequate housing options in community
- high healthcare costs (contribute to poverty)
Homelessness - Prevention Strategies
- housing subsidies
- building more low-cost housing
- providing supportive social services
- giving cash assistance for rent or mortgages
- acknowledging the problem in community
- promoting as rapid an exit from homelessness as possible
What has been shown to be the most important factor explaining homelessness in the U.S. today?
lack of affordable housing
What is predicted to happen to the elderly population in the U.S. by the year 2020?
expected to increase
Studies have shown that homelessness is a(n) ______ condition for most individuals
In the American public welfare or public assistance system, who provides assistance to the recipients?
A critical element of the most successful programs to prevent child maltreatment is _______.
Besides social support, what other dimension is important to improving the elderly's quality of life and has been specially flagged by community psychologists working with them?
enhanced self-control in many aspects of daily living
What factor has been identified as a primary contribution to why men are violent toward their women partners?
stereotypical gender role adherence
What is the major change to public assistance programs under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act?
Individuals on public assistance must transition to full or part-time work
In sum, based on information in the book, what most contributes to child maltreatment?
Environmental conditions, such as living in poverty
The ecological approach to teenage pregnancy prevention takes into account
(ALL OF THE ABOVE)
- familial setting
- macrosystems (e.g., media)
- social settings