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foreign policy

a nation's plan for dealing with other nations

national security

the primary goal of American foreign policy


formal agreements between the governments of two or more countries

executive agreement

an agreement between the president and the leader of another country


an official representative of a country's government

trade sanction

efforts to punish another nation by imposing trade barriers


an agreement among a group of nations that prohibits them from trading with a target nation


a group of advisors to the president that includes the heads of 15 top-level executive departments

federal bureaucracy

agencies and the employees of the executive branch of government

independent agency

federal board or commission that is not part of any cabinet department

government corporation

a business owned and operated by the federal government

political appointee

a person appointed to a federal position by the president

civil service worker

person hired into a government position

civil service system

the practice of hiring government workers on the basis of open, competitive examinations and merit

spoils system

rewarding people with government jobs on the basis of their political support

merit system

hiring people into government jobs on the basis of their qualifications

electoral college

a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president


person appointed to vote in presidential elections for the major candidates

executive order

a rule or command that has the force of law


a declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment


an order to delay a person's punishment until a higher court can hear the case


a pardon towards a group of people

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