Terms in this set (51)
A long poem that tells a story, usually a folk tale or legend, in rhyme.
Often set to music.
_______ poetry experiments with the very materials of the poem itself: words, letters, format. The final product does what it says in that the
meaning of the poem is demonstrated by the words, letters, format of the poem.
__________ poems rely heavily on the visual or phonetic to get across their meaning.
this is a particular type of lyric that is written to mourn the passing of something or someone.
This is a very, very long poem that tells a story. ______ poems are narrative poems that are long enough to be in a book of their own, rather than an anthology.
_____ are poems about the dead that are written to be on a tombstone; this means they are usually very short.
These are very short, witty poems that make a pithy pronouncement about something. Usually they are written as a couplet.
Words organized in such a way that there is a pattern of rhythm, rhyme and/or
meaning. The relationships between words are emphasized in poetry, so the various word-clusters or verses have a collective impact on the reader/listener (which is different from prose, where the words "hit" the reader one at a time in sentences).
Modern poetry that has no regular pattern of rhythm, rhyme or line length
A short poem of intense feeling and emotion.
A poem that tells a story, narratives may or may not rhyme
This is a very serious form of the lyric; it is written about a serious topic and is very dignified, if not stately, in tone and style.
A fourteen line lyric written in iambic pentameter. _______ follow a rigid rhyme scheme. Typical rhyme schemes for sonnets are the Shakespearian or
English sonnet (abab cdcd efef gg) or the Italian or Petrarchan sonnet (abba abba cdc cdc OR abba abba cde cde). For more information about iambic pentameter
and rhyme scheme, see "Rhythm and Rhyme" below.
Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of a series of words. This device uses sound to catch the reader's attention. "I kicked cold coffee
Repeating vowel sounds in the middle of words. This device also uses sound to catch the reader's attention. This is a subtle device for which you
have to listen carefully. "Twinkle twinkle little star"
Sounds that are unpleasant and harsh to the ear. Usually,
__________ is achieved through repeating "s", "c", "k" or other, similarly harsh-
sounding sounds. The opposite of euphony. An example would be "and squared and stuck there squares of soft white chalk"
Repeating _______ sounds in the middle of words. This device also uses sound to catch the reader's attention. This is a subtle device, although it
is less subtle than assonance. "If elephants laugh carefully"
Sounds that are very pleasant to the ear. The opposite of cacophony.
Words that sound like what they mean are called onomatopoeia.
"Buzz", "hiss", "splash" are typical examples of this sound device. Also known
as imitative harmony.
A direct comparison between two dissimilar items. "That baby is sugar sweet"
This is a type of metaphor in which a reference point is substituted for the thing to which reference is actually made. "The pen is mightier than the sword", "the kettle is boiling", and "I love reading Shakespeare"
A comparison between a non human item and a human so that the non human item is given human characteristics. "The trees stretched their arms to the sky"
A comparison between two dissimilar items using "like" or "as" to make the comparison. "The stars were like diamonds in the sky"
Very similar to metonymy, ____ occurs when the significant part is used for the whole. "All hands on deck!"
A reference in one piece of literature to something from another piece of literature. ____ can also be references to person/events/places in history, religion, or myth. ____ are frequently made in poetry, but can occur in other genres as well.
a rhetorical figure in which the speaker addresses a dead or absent person, or an abstraction or inanimate object. For example, the speaker in John Donne's "Holy Sonnet X" speaks to death as if it were a person. "O Death!"
a phrase, line or expression that has been so overused, it is boring and commonplace, such as "it was a dark and stormy night" or "red with anger"
The unspoken, unwritten series of associations made with a particular word. For example, the word "dog," depending on how it is used, might connote faithfulness, loyalty, and devotion.
the literal meaning of the word that a person would find in the
The imaginative language that makes a poem rich to a
reader. ________ often relies on comparison devices like simile, metaphor, and personification to make the point. The opposite of literal language. _________ is to literal language what connotation is to denotation.
A deliberate exaggeration to make a point. "I was hungry enough to eat the 'fridge"
Poets create pictures in the mind of the reader, which appeal to the sense of sight; they also create descriptions to appeal to the other four senses. This collection of appeals to the five senses.
The literal meaning of the poem, which ignores imagery, symbolism, figurative language and any imagination on the part of the poet or the reader. ______ is to figurative language what denotation is to
The emotion of the poem. The atmosphere. The predominant feeling
created by or in the poem, usually through word choice or description. ______ IS
NOT THE SAME AS TONE.
Placing single word opposites beside each other for dramatic effect. "Hot ice", "jumbo shrimp" and "cold fire"
A large oxymoron. An apparently contradictory statement that, despite
the contradiction, has an element of truth in it. Wordsworth's "the child is the
father of the man" and Shakespeare's "the truest poetry is the most feigning"
Deliberately repeated words, sounds, phrases, or whole stanzas. Repetition is used to make a point in the poem.
Something that represents something else. For example, a dove often represents the concept of peace.
word order, the way words are put together to form phrases, clauses or
sentences in a poem. Sometimes poets play with ____ to increase the richness of their figurative language or to make a line of poetry work into a particular rhythm.
The narrator's attitude toward the subject of the poem and, sometimes,
toward the reader of the poem. ____ is NOT THE SAME AS MOOD.
the opposite of hyperbole. _______ achieves its effect through stating less than what is necessary. For example, a person might say to a hospitalized car crash victim, "I bet that hurt."
Two lines of poetry that rhyme. The last two lines of an English sonnet
is a _________.
"Roses are red, violets are blue
Sugar is sweet and so are you"
Eight lines of poetry that have a rhyme scheme. The first part of an Italian sonnet is an _______.
Four lines of poetry that have a rhyme scheme. "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" (above) is an example. ______ often have an abab or abcb rhyme scheme, as well as the aabb shown above. The first three verses of an English sonnet are ________.
Six lines of poetry that have a rhyme scheme. The second part of an Italian sonnet is a _______.
another word for "verse".
A paragraph of writing in a poem. These paragraphs are written as clusters of rhyming lines in traditional poetry, such as octaves, sestets and
quatrains. Also known as a stanza.
Unrhymed iambic pentameter. All sonnets, Shakespearian plays and the King James version of the Bible are written in _______. Unrhymed iambic pentameter is said to closely mimic the cadences of natural speech. See below for more information on iambic pentameter.
two syllables. The first one is not stressed when spoken; the second one is stressed. The words "giraffe" or "destroy" are examples. Five iambs in a row is ______.
The following is an example
"Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour up on the stage
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
When sounds match at the end of lines of poetry, it is considered _______ (technically, it is end-_____).
A pattern of sound in a poem; it may be a regular pattern (such as iambic pentameter) or irregular, as in free verse
The pattern of rhyme in a poem, indicated with letters of the alphabet. To decide on a _____________, you assign a letter of the alphabet to all
rhyming words at the ends of lines of poetry, starting with the letter "a". When you run out of one rhyme sound, you start with the next letter of the alphabet. For example, the following is an aa bb _______