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Terms in this set (66)
What are functions to nervous system?
A. Regulate and coordinate all body activities
B. Detect changes in the internal and external enviornment
C. Evalute information and respond to stimuli
D. Center for mental acitivity: thought, learning and memory
Specialties of nervous system?
What are the divisions of nervous system?
CNS and PNS
CNS (central nervous system)
consists of the brain and spinal cord: responsible for processing and storing sensory and motor info and controlling consciousness
PNS (peripheral nervous system)
Consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves: transmits sensory and Moro impulses back and forth between CNS and body
What is the PNS made up of?
nerves and ganglia
Cordlike bundle of nerve fibers that transmits impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord
Knot-like mass of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
What are the nerves/neuron classification?
Efferent nerves (motor)
Afferent nerves (sensory)
Carry impulses from the body to the CNS
Carry impulses from the CNS to the effectors (muscles/glands/organs)
Within CNS, conduct impulses. (Relay station)
What are the PNS subdivisions?
SNS AND ANS
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
Provide voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Provides involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
What are the ANS subdivides/nerves?
Sympathetic nerves and parasympathetic nerves
Regulate essential body functions (increasing the heart rate, blood vessel constriction and increasing b/p, decreasing peristalsis), responding to the "fight or flight"
Slows heart rate, increasing peristalsis and relaxing sphincters, returns body yo restful state
Cells of the nervous system
Nerve and ganglion
Functional unit or nerve cell. Transmits impulses
Parts of the neuron
cell body, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath and synapse
Central portion of cell. Contains nucleus
Cytoplasmic extensions act as receivers for impulses.
Long slender fiber that conducts impulses away
protective covering for axon
Space between axon and dendrites of neuron.
Make up white matter, those not covered make up gray matter
Special type of connective tissue that provide support for the nervous system . DO NOT conduct impulses. Protected by phagocytosis
Star-shaped only found in CNS. Wrap around brains capillaries . Form a tight sheath and along with the capillary wall form the blood-brain barrier to prevent passage of harmful substances from the blood into the brain tissue or CSF
Small interstitial cells that engulf cellular debris, waste products and pathogens. During injury or infection they increased dramatically in number and migrate to the damage or infected area
Found in the interstitial nervous tissue. Smaller than astrocytes help to form myelin sheath yo cover the axon
What is the CNS surrounded by?
Connective tissue membranes known as the meninges and by the (CSF)cerebrospinal fluid
What are the layers and how many do meninges have ?
Tough white connective tissue
filled with serous fluid
Contains supporting cushion of fat, etc
Middle layer, resembles a spider web: threadlike strands attach to innermost layer
CSF (liquid shock absorber)
The innermost layer. It is tightly bound to brain surface. It is closely applied to both structure and carried rich supply of blood vessels, which nourishes the nervous tissue
Weighs about 3 pounds in an adult, made up of 1 billion neurons
Brain divides into how many major parts and what are they in order?
Largest portion of the brain. Controls consciousness, memory sensations and emotions and VOLUNTARY movements
surface of cerebrum. Has elevations known as "Gyri" and grooves called "Sucli"
Right and left portions divided by the longitudinal fissure
Cerebrum is divided into what?
1. Frontal lobe
Involved in motor functions, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgement, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior
receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors for pain, touch, heat and cold balance. It further helps
Determine distance, size and shape
Olfactory (smell) area bd the auditory area
Houses the visual area controlling eyesight
Attached to the brain stem, essential role in maintaining muscle tone and coordinating normal movements and maintaining balance
Between midbrain and cerebrum
Receives all sensory stimuli. Except Olfactory and auditory
(The Brian of brain) responsible for :
-activating, controlling and integrating the ANS
-body temp regulation
-appetite and thirst control
Pineal body (gland)
Regulates biological clock and produces melatonin (sleep/wake cycles)
Brain Stem 4
Between diencephalon and spinal cord
Superior portion of the brain stem. Assists with tracking images, eye movement
(Bridge) connects cerebellum to brain stem
Controls vital functions: respiration, blood pressure and heart rate
Corpus collosum and hippocampus
A broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain
the elongated ridges on the floor of each lateral ventricle of the brain, thought to be the center of emotion, memory, and the autonomic nervous system.
Is degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stems motor system characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms such as a stopped posture with the body flexed forward
meningitis (acute bacterial)
Is a serious bacterial infection of the meninges (the covering of the brain and spinal cord)
Is a chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder causing severe skeletal muscle weakness (without atrophy) and fatigue, which occurs at different levels of severity
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Is a degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS attacking the Myelin Sheath in the spinal cord and brain, leaving it sclerosed (hardened) it scarred and interrupting the flow of nerve impulses
cerebrovascular accident or stroke (CVA)
Involve death of a specific portion of brain tissue,resulting from a decrease in blood flow (ischemia) to that area of the brain: also called a stroke
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