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Anatomy Exam #3
Terms in this set (125)
Clavicle and the Scapula
The bones of the pectoral girdle. They reflect the great flexibility needed for upper limbs
The pectoral girdle attaches to the axial skeleton at this one small articulation. Synovial-gliding joint
Humerus, Radius, and Ulna
These bones are sites for muscle attachment, which give added strength to the upper limbs
Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges
These bones allow for a great deal of flexibility and manipulative qualities used in everyday life (upper limb).
A very loose joint that allows flexibility but sacrifices stability. One of the commonly dislocated joints in the body. The upper limbs are attached to the pectoral girdle via the head of the humerus and the shallow glenoid fossa of the scapula at this joint.
Radial Notch of Ulna
Where the radius and the ulna connect (proximal)
Ulnar Notch of Radius
Where the radius and ulna connect (distal)
Connects to the radius
Connects to the ulna
The Pelvic Girdle
Includes the two coxal (hip) bones.
Result of fusion (synostosis) of three smaller bones: the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis. (Also called the os coxae or innominate bones)
Strongest joint in the body. Posterior, the two coxal bones form a broad, remarkably stable articulation with the fused sacrum of the vertebral column. Synovial-gliding joint with strong extracapsular ligaments; Nonaxial
The sacrum and the two coxal bones from this. Sacrifices flexibility for stability.
Literally means "vinegar cup"; Femur articulates here
Literally means "closed hole"; has an interosseous membrane which is an attachment site for muscles
Femur and Tibia
Powerful weight-bearing bones of the lower limbs.
A delicate, non-weightbearing bone whose main function is to supply a site for muscle attachment.
The only bone that actually articulates with the tibia is this tarsal bone
Scapula and Clavicle connect here with reinforcing ligaments.
Radioulnar Joint (Elbow Joint)
Annular ligament holds the radial head against the capitulum of the humerus; Synovial/pivot synovial/hinge = uniaxial
Joint type of mid-shaft of radius/ulna
Greater Pelvis (False Pelvis)
Superior to pelvic brim; Actually part of abdomen
Lesser Pelvis (True Pelvis)
Inferior to pelvic brim and surrounds pelvic cavity; houses pelvic organs
Attaches from transverse ligament to fovea capitis; provides blood vessels to the head of the femur.
Tibiofemoral Joint (Knee Joint)
Synovial Hinge/Diarthrois Uniaxial; Where tibia articulates with the femur (ONLY the tibia)
Include the semimembranosus semitendinosus, and biceps femoris
Include the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis
Include the ilacus and the psoas major
straight, parallel to the midline
Refers to a triangular shape
Refers to a trapezoid shape
Refers to a diamond shape
Refers to a "pear" shape
Refers to a slender shape
Means "2 origins"
Means "3 Origins"
Means "4 Origins"
Refers to a structure that makes a body part rigid
Gracilis, Sartorius, Semimembranosus, and Semitendinosus all insert on the Proximal Medial Surface of the tibia
Grace and Sara and the Semi-Twins all have PMS Today
Addcutor Magnus, Adductor Longus, Adductor Brevis, Pectineus, and Gracilis
AAA is Pretty Good -- Adductor muscles of the hip
Biceps Femoris (LH) and Semimembranosus, and Semitendinosus Origin -- Ischial Tuberosity
Betty Ford, and the Semi-Twins Originate in Texas
Actually extension of the ankle -- so extensor mscles produce this movement
Actually Flexion of the ankle -- so flexor muscles produce this movement
Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, ad Flexor Hallucis Longus
"Tom, Dick, and Harry" -- At the site of medial malleolus, 3 tendons can be seen
All lateral leg muscles cross behind this
Lateral --> Medial
All deep, posterior leg muscles cross this way; Lower muscles cross behind the medial maleolus
The Cardiovascular System
The body's link between the internal environment and the external environment.
Fluid connective tissue that consists of specialized cells distributed within a matrix.
In the case of blood, the matrix is a fluid called this; Contains about 92% water and 8% dissolved substances such as gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and plasma proteins.
These are the specialized cells found in blood; Make up about 45% of blood. Take part in the viscosity of blood. ; Blood Cells
Mostly produced in the liver and are important in blood clotting, immune responses, and the transport of proteins such as steroids.
Thickness or stickiness to blood that the formed elements play a role in
Each blood cell was derived from a type of cell called this; It is a stem cell that is found in red bone marrow (after birth). Gives rise to all formed elements, each with very different roles in the body.
Red blood cells; Lack a nucleus and many of the normal cellular organelles; Biconcave appearance; Does not have the ability to reproduce and has limited ability to repair itself if damaged; Make up about 99.9% of the formed elements.
White blood cells; Primarily use the blood as a medium to travel to various regions of the body;
Platelets; For histology, it might look like debris; Formed through the cellular "shedding" of a cell called a megakariocyte; They are membrane-bound bits of the megakariocyte; Contain several organelles and chemical-filled vesicles important in their role as blood clotting cells; Work with fibrinogen (a plasma protein)
Leukocytes that have granules in their cytoplasm; Include the Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils.
Leukocytes that do not have granules in their cytoplasm; include Lymphocytes and Monocytes.
Special pigment protein that helps to increase the cell's surface area for oxygen binding; RBCs pack these in
A leukocyte (granulocyte) that has a multi-lobed nucleus and is nearly twice the size of an erythrocyte. Looks like several small nuclei joined by a very thin band; MOST abundant leukocyte found in the blood
Same size as an erythrocyte with a proportionally large dark-purple/red stained nucleus; Little cytoplasm in relation to its large nuclei; Leukocyte (Agranulocyte)
Leukocyte (Agranulocyte); 2-3 times the size of an erythrocyte and has a large nucleus; Should be able to see cytoplasm within the cell and the nucleus also appears to be somewhat kidney bean-shaped; Least abundant leukocyte
The pericardial cavity is formed by this sac
The outer wall of the pericardium is lined with a serous membrane called this (cavity); Continuous with the membrane that lines the outer wall of the heart
Visceral Pericardium (Epicardium)
The membrane that lines the outer wall of the heart (organ); Outer most layer of the heart and is often permeated with fat
Reduces friction between the surface of the constantly beating heart and the surrounding structures
The muscular layer of the heart wall and is attached to the visceral pericardium/epicardium
Muscular layer of the heart has organized connective tissue fibers interwoven within the cardiac muscle cells that make up this structure of the heart; Separates the chambers and forms structured rings around the base of the vessels and valves of the heart
The deepest, innermost layer of the heart wall; consists of loose connective tissue layer topped with an inner endothelial layer; Continuous with the endothelium of the blood vessels attached to the heart; In contact with the blood
The site of junction between two cardiac cells; Within this tissue, cardiac cells join end-to-end via numerous _______
The inferior angle of the heart; Lies deep, just left to the mid line of the body between the fifth and sixth ribs
Superior border of the heart; Major vessels extend from this; Located deep to the third rib level
The receiving chambers
The pumping chambers
Physically separate these heart chambers
The septum that separates the two atria
The septum that separates the two ventricles.
Atrioventricular Valves (AV)
Valves that are located between the atria and ventricles; Connected to the endocardium
Valves that are located between the ventricles and the outgoing vessels.
Right Side of the Heart
Pumps deoxygenated blood received from the body tissue
Left Side of the Heart
Pumps oxygenated blood received from the lungs.
Inferior/Superior Vena Cava
The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body through these two veins and then pumps this deoxygenated blood through the right AV valve to the right ventricle.
The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from these veins and then pumps this oxygenated blood through the left V valve to the left ventricle.
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve -- Pulmonary Arteries
The right ventricle pumps the blood through the _____________ into the pulmonary (lung) circulation via the __________.
Arotic Semilunar Valve -- Aorta
The left entricle pumps the blood through the _______________ into the systemic (whole body) circulation via the _________.
Whole body circulation
Tiny tendon-like bands that are connected to the free-edges of the flaps of the A-V valves and also connected to papillary muscles.
Muscular projections from the inner surface of the ventricles; When the filled ventricles begin to contract, so do these; They tighten up the chordae tendinae;
Right and Left Coronary Arteries
Branch right off of the base of the ascending aorta; They are located within the coronary sulcus between the atria and ventricles, encircling the heart like a crown; Supply oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood to the heart
Drains the deoxyenated blood from the numerous veins of the heart muscle and then empties the blood into the lower medial region of the right atrium.
Carry blood AWAY from the heart and towards the body tissue
Carry blood TOWARDS the heart and away from the body tissue
Join the arteries and veins together WITHIN the body tissue. It is within these where most of the exchange of nutrients, hormones, gases, and more take place.
Layers within the vessel walls
Tunica Interna (Intima)
Consists of a simple squamous endothelial layer underlain with connective tissue. In arteries this is lined with an internal elastic membrane;
Primarily consists of variable amounts of smooth muscle fibers within a connective tissue network. Within this tunic are variable amounts of elastic fibers; Much thicker in arteries than in veins; In arteries, the edge of this tunic is lined with an external elastic membrane
Tunica Externa (Adventitia)
Consists of a connective tissue layer with many elastic and collagen fibers; This layer is used to hold the vessels in place within the body
Celiac, Superior Mesenteric, Renal, Gonadal, Inferior Mesenteric, and Common Iliac Arteries
Arteries that come off of the Aorta -- "Can Silly Mice Really Get Into My Cheese Its?"
Contracting cells of the heart which make up the bulk of the heart
Responsible for initiating, starting and setting the pace of, heart contractions.
Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)
Located in the superior region of the right atrium. Causes the contraction impulse to spread across the muscle cells of both atria resulting in atrial contraction.
The Atrioventricular (AV Node) Node
Located in the right atrium, near the entrance of the coronary sinus. ; The impulse is delayed slightly at this node, until the atria complete their contraction and the ventricles fill.
SA Node --> Depolarization Pathway Starts --> Internodal Pathways --> AV Node --> Bundle of His --> Bundle Branches --> Purkinje Fibers
Intrinsic Conduction System Pathway
The initiation and conduction of impulses throughout the heart is an electrical event that can be monitored with special tools such as this
One heartbeat to the next
Contraction of the heart chambers
Relaxation of the heart chambers
Lymphocytes and Monocytes
The primary leukocytes of the lymphatic system
Combine to form the larger lymphatic vessels that are connected in a series with a number of lymph nodes and other lymphatic vessels.
This fluid is percolated through the lymph nodes as it travels through the body; It is eventually returned to the blood supply by way of the left and right subclavian veins.
A specialized lymphatic capillary that is located within intestinal villi of the small intestine; Lipids cross over the epithelial lining of the intestinal capillaries and are absorbed into these.
Bone Marrow, Thymus, Lymph Nodes and their Connecting Vessels (Including Lacteals), the Tonsils, Peyer's patches within the Intestinal Walls, and the Spleen
The organs of the lymphatic system.
Right Lymphatic Duct
The lymphatic vessels of the right arm, right half of the face, and right thorax empty their lymph fluid into this
Left Lymphatic Duct
The lymph fluid from the body below the diaphragm, the left arm, the left half of the face, and the left thorax empties into this
The junction between the left lymphatic duct and the left subclavian vein
The center of the lymph node
Extensions coming off of the cortex of the lymph node; Only an aggregation of mainly lymphocytes, with their dark-staining nuclei
Spaces or cavities that are between the medullary cords in the lymph node
Afferent Lymphatic Vessels
The lymph enters the lymph node through this
Efferent Lymphatic Vessels
The lymph exits the lymph node through this
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