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CHS Titan- Urban Geography
Terms in this set (67)
ratio between workers employed in the basic sector and those employed in the nonbasic sector
Those products or services of an urban economy that are exported outside the city itself, earning income for the community.
non basic sector
goods and services produced by urban workers for people employed within the urban area
A sociologist who made the concentric zone model. This model is a model of internal structures of cities in which the distribution of different social groups within urban areas are spatially arranged in a series of rings. Burgess came up with this model when studying the growth of Chicago in late 1800's to early 1900's.
the heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.
Small country subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
Central Business District
The downtown heart of a central city, the Central Business District is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of retail and office activities.
Cities that provide goods and services for the surrounding area.
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
German geographer came up with the idea of the central place theory
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
City - State
A city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit, a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
noncompetiting market areas; where each individual urban center and its merchants have a sales monopoly
Concentric Zone Model
A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.
Councils of Government
cooperative agencies consisting of representatives from local governments in the region
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
A term introduced by Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the United States away from the CBD toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe. These cities are characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings
feminization of poverty
The increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children
The period between about 7000 and 5000 bc which noted the beginnings of the development of states and urbanization
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
Areas of a town or city where a particular ethnic group lived; usually became crowded and rundown.
A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources.
(in European cities) undeveloped area neighboring an urban area, often protected from development by planning law, A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Harris and Ullman
developed multiple nuclei model explaining that large cities developed by spreading from several places of growth, not just one
an economist who studied housing data for 142 American cities, presented his sector model of urban land use in 1939. he maintained that high-rent residential districts were instrumental in shaping the land-use structure of the city. Because these areas were reinforced by transportation routes, the pattern of their development was one of sectors or wedges, not concentric zones.
Fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools
City with more than 10 million people
A region in which several large cities and surrounding areas grow together
a city in which a central square became the focus of the city flanked by royal, religious, public, and private buildings: streets leading to such squares formed the beginnings of a downtown
proposed in 1945 by Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman. First recognition of suburban business districts on the urban periphery. Implies that there is more than one commercial center in the city.
a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
A city which is greater than two times the next largest city in a nation (or contains over one-third of a nation's population). The primate city is usually very expressive of the national culture and often the capital city.
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
Hoyt sector model
Proposed by Homer Hoyt, this model of urban development suggests that zones within cities grow along transportation routes, while remaining organized according to class. Instead of rings, Hoyt's sectors extend outward from the center in wedge shapes.
Legislation and regulations that limits suburban sprawl and preserves farmland
social area analysis
Statistical analysis used to identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life style live within an urban area.
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
An outlying district of a city
Mass movement of people from farms to cities; growth of city into surrounding countryside
A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. The practice derived its name from the red lines depicted on cadastral maps used by real estate agents and developers. Today, redlining is officially illegal.
Allows the govt to take property for public use but also requires the govt to provide just compensation for that property
Homes referred to as such because of their "super size" and similarity in appearance to other such homes; homes often built in place of tear-downs in American suburbs
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.
the transformation of large areas of land from rural to urban uses
Developed by geographers Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford, a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene.
generally the poorest region in a urban area, characterized by being ruled by gangs or drug lords
Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.
hillside shanty towns in south america
A group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Stages of evolution of American metopolis based on transportation: 1. Sail-Wagon 2. Iron Horse 3. Steel Rail 4. Auto-Air 5.High Tech; uses transportation advances as key to development of urban areas
process of subdivision of houses and occupancy by successive waves of lower-income people
urban revitalization with the goal of creating more livable and walkable space in mind
Areas that lack sources of competitively priced healthy and fresh food
Defunct, derelict, or abandoned commercial or industrial sites; many have toxic wastes.
Streets lined with tall buildings that can channel and intensify winds
An area not located within the boundary of a municipality.
Residential density gradient
as one moves from the inner city population density declines along with type and density of housing units
uncounted or illegal economy that governments do not tax and keep track of
Metropolitan statistical area
a central county of counties with at least of one urbanized area of at least 50,000 people
Micropolitan statistical area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants
An agglomeration of towns or cities into an unbroken urban environment
Global City/World City
A city that is a control center of the global economy.
The physical character of a place
The location of a place relative to another place
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