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Biology Chapter 18

Vocabulary from Chapter 38 of Prentice Hall Biology textbook, Miller-Levine, California edition
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Taxonomy
The discipline in which scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a universal, unique name
Binomial nomenclature
The two-word naming system developed by Carolus Linnaeus that is used to assign species scientific names
Genus
A group of closely related species
Taxon
A level of classification in binomial nomenclature
Family
A group of genera that share many characteristics
Order
A broad taxonomic category composed of similar families
Class
A taxonomic category composed of similar orders
Phylum
A taxonomic category composed of classes that contain organisms that share key characteristics
Kingdom
The largest and most inclusive of the taxonomic categories
Phylogeny
The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
Evolutionary classification
The strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history
Derived characters
Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members
Molecular clock
A model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
Domain
A move inclusive category than kingdom that was created due to molecular analyses and is recognized by many scientists
Bacteria
A domain whose members are unicellular and prokaryotic, have cell walls, and may need or be killed by oxygen
Eubacteria
The kingdom that corresponds to the domain Bacteria
Archaea
A domain whose members are unicellular and prokaryotic and whose cell membranes contain unusual lipids not found in other organisms; they live in extreme environments such as volcanic hot springs, brine pools, and black organic mud
Archaebacterica
The kingdom that corresponds to the domain Archaea
Eukarya
The domain that consists of all organisms that have a nucleus or are made up of cells containing nuclei
Protista
The kingdom in the domain Eukarya that is composed of eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi
Fungi
The kingdom in the domain Eukarya that is composed of multicellular or unicellular heterotrophs, most of which feed on dead or decaying organic matter
Plantae
The kingdom in the domain Eukarya that is composed of multicellular, photosynthetic autotrophs
Animalia
The kingdom in the domain Eukarya that is composed of multicellular, heterotrophic organisms
Cladogram
A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms