PCS Written Exam 2
Terms in this set (283)
decrease dead space,
What are the 7 reasons to bandage equine wounds?
same side of the horse as the person bandaging
Where should the person restraining a horse during bandaging stand?
prevent contamination, allow debridement, absorb exudate
What are the purposes of the primary (contact) layer of an equine bandage?
What type of bandage is appropriate as a primary (contact) layer for a sutured wound?
What type of bandage is appropriate as a primary (contact) layer for wounds with little/no exudate?
What type of bandage is a saline-soaked sponge referred to as?
What type of bandage removes exudate while keeping a wound from drying out?
What type of bandage provides debridement while removing fluid of a low viscosity?
What type of bandage is used in a healthy, granulating wound?
non-adherent, wet-to-moist, wet-to-dry, occlusive
What are the options for dressing types in the primary (contact) layer?
absorb exudate, protect the leg from further trauma, decrease motion
What are the goals of the secondary layer of a bandage?
hold the primary (contact layer) and secondary layers in place, prevent swelling
What are the goals of the tertiary layer of a bandage?
Vetwrap or Elasticon represent what layer of a bandage?
Gauze, steriroll, and combiroll represent what layer of a bandage?
primary (contact layer)
Telfa pads, calcium alginate, and silicon represent what layer of a bandage?
this would create pressure points and would be uncomfortable
Why is it important to wrap an equine limb without wrinkles in the bandage?
Describe the direction and procedure of wrapping an equine limb.
Describe the direction and procedure of wrapping an equine limb.
stable wrap; it has a lot of padding
What kind of wrap is pictured here? How can you tell?
What type of wrap is used to support a leg after exercise?
What type of wrap is used to support a leg during transport?
exercise wrap; minimal padding, more elasticity
What kind of wrap is pictured here? How can you tell?
What type of wrap is used to support tendons during exercise?
stops contamination from entering the bandage, stops horse from removing the bandage
Why is adhesive bandaging normally placed below the vetwrap in leg wraps?
pastern, cannon bone, coronary band
What must be included in a lower limb therapeutic bandage?
Apply the primary layer on the lower limb, wrap the lower limb in secondary layer, apply upper limb primary and secondary layer, apply single tertiary layer
Explain the application of a stacked bandage.
minimally traumatic procedures where you don't anticipate swelling, especially of the lower limb
When are only carpal or tarsal bandages appropriate, rather than full leg wraps?
prevent pressure sores
Why wrap in a figure-8 around the hock when bandaging?
to help prevent wear through and contamination of the bandage
Why are foot bandages covered with duct tape?
What layer may a diaper comprise on a foot bandage?
stifle, elbow, abdominal incisions
Where may a stent bandage be placed on a horse?
stent bandage; difficult to bandage location
What kind of wrap is pictured here? How can you tell?
apply pressure to decrease formation of a hematoma
What is the purpose of a head bandage post-enucleation?
PVC pipe or a 2 x 4
What may be used for support in a splint of a horse?
splints are designed for support; they won't give when pressure is applied and will create sores
Why is it important that a splint not contact the skin?
21 days (sheep= 17 days)
What is the interovulatory interval for most species?
What is the length of estrus in cattle?
What is the length of estrus in the horse?
What is the length of estrus in the pig?
What is the length of estrus in goats?
What is the length of estrus in sheep?
12-18 hrs after the end of estrus
When does ovulation occur relative to estrus in the cow?
24-48 hrs before the end of estrus
When does ovulation occur relative to estrus in the horse?
1-2 days after estrus begins
When does ovulation occur relative to estrus in the pig?
12-24 hrs after estrus begins
When does ovulation occur relative to estrus in the goat?
toward the end
When does ovulation occur relative to estrus in the sheep?
How long is diestrus in the cow?
How long is diestrus in the horse?
How long is diestrus in the pig?
How long is diestrus in the goat?
How long is diestrus in the sheep?
Name the species:
21 days/12-18 hrs/12-18 hrs after end/16 days
Name the species: 21 days/3-10 days/1-2 days before end/15 days
Name the species: 21 days/2-3 days/ 1-2 days after beginning/ 14 days
Name the species: 21 days/12-24 hrs/12-24 hrs after beginning/18 days
Name the species: 17 days/24-36 hrs/toward end/12 days
cause luteolysis and a return to estrus
What is the effect of prostaglandins when using them as a method to manipulate estrus?
prolong the luteal phase to inhibit behavioral estrus, inhibit LH surge
What is the effect of progestins when using them as a method to manipulate estrus?
no (alter release not production)
Do progestins affect LH production when they are used as an estrus-manipulation method?
stimulate FSH and LH release to stimulate follicular maturation and ovulation
What is the effect of GnRH analogs when using them as a method to manipulate estrus?
recruits follicle development on the ovaries
What is the effect of FSH?
causes maturation, ovulation, and luteinization of follicles
What is the effect of LH?
LH-like activity; FSH-like activity
What effect does eCG have in the horse? other species?
stimulates the ovaries (FSH, LH)
What is the effect of Gonadotrophins when using them as a method to manipulate estrus?
artificial photoperiods, introduction of a male, removal of young
What are environmental alterations that can impact estrus?
the presence of offspring suppresses LH release
Why does removing young stimulate estrus in some species?
minimum 5 days maximum 10 days post ovulation, lysis
When will a cow CL respond to prostaglandin? effect?
2-5 days (depends on available follicles)
When after injection of prostaglandin should you see estrus and ovulation in cattle?
If you want to synchronize cattle for AI, when in the window of time post-ovulation should prostaglandin be given?
10 days or later
If you want to breed cattle with a bull, when in the window of time post-ovulation should prostaglandin be given?
if you give it closer to 5 days post ovulation, fewer cows will enter estrus but it will be very synchronous. If you wait until more than 10 days, more cows will enter estrus but it will not be at the same time
What influences the decision to give prostaglandin injections closer to the beginning or end of the 5 day window of effect in cattle?
acyclic, pregnant, given at the wrong time in a cycle
What could cause a cow to not respond to prostaglandin injections?
11 days apart
If you give prostaglandin injections to cattle using the 2 injection scheme, when are they given?
based on palpation of mature CLs
If you give prostaglandin injections to cattle using the 1 injection scheme, when are they given?
suppress LH release until removed, initiating estrus and ovulation
What is the purpose of CIDR in cattle?
bos indicus cattle don't respond as well
What breed factors may affect the efficacy of GnRH in cattle?
heifers that are not yet cyclic won't respond
What maturity factors may affect the efficacy of GnRH in cattle?
animals must be in good body condition and have a positive energy balance
What nutritional factors may affect the efficacy of GnRH in cattle?
over 50 days
When post-partum will GnRH injections be most effective in cattle?
How long should a calf be removed prior to injection of GnRH in cattle?
Are sheep and goats short or long day breeders?
to induce estrus in winter, advance breeding season into summer, or synchronize fall breeding
When is it indicated to alter estrus cycles in sheep and goats?
What implant in sheep and goats may stimulate breeding season by mimicking day length changes?
3-6 days (silent); 14-24 days (species dependent)
When after introducing a male will sheep/goats ovulate? When will normal estrus occur?
the sponges may cause vaginitis and are lost up to 25% of the time
What is the benefit of CIDRs in sheep and goats vs flurogestone acetate-impregnated sponges?
4-5 days post ovulation; lysis
When will a sheep/goat CL respond to prostaglandin? effect?
When will sheep/goats return to estrus post prostaglandin injection?
9-11 days apart
If you give prostaglandin injections to sheep/goats using the 2 injection scheme, when are they given?
Are horses short or long day breeders?
lutalyse, estrumate (more concentrated), CIDR
What are common prostaglandin products used in bovids?
flurogestone acetate-impregnated sponges, CIDRs
What are common prostaglandin products used in sheep/goats?
GnRH releases LH and FSH, which recruits follicles and causes estrus. 7 days later, prostaglandin is given to lyse any CL currently in the ovary, then may give GnRH again or AI depending on management
Explain the general progression of synchronizing animals starting with GnRH.
3-6 days; 14-26 days
When after introducing a buck/ram may sheep/goats ovulate? be bred?
at or 24 hrs before removing progestins
When is GnRH administered in a synchronization cycle?
at least 5 days post-ovulation administer prostaglandins. This should stimulate estrus to begin in about 3 days (know pigs are different; this does not apply)
Explain the normal times in estrus synchronization with prostaglandin administration.
shorten anestrus and enter the transitional phase earlier; they don't store enough LH in the anterior pituitary to create a CL so we want to help increase this storage
How is photoperiod manipulated to alter estrus cycles in the horse?
How far in advance must photoperiods be altered in horses to expect to see a change in cyclicity?
(inhibits LH): altrenogest, regumate;
(stimulates prolactin): domperidone, sulpride
What are common progestin products used in horses?
20-25mm; release of LH; about 3 days
How big must a follicle be in the horse to respond to removal of altregnogest/regumate? effect? When does estrus occur after administration?
encourages cyclicity (not the case in most other species)
What is the benefit of stimulating prolactin release in the mare?
this stimulates prolactin release in 50-60 days vs, 12-22 days in transitional period
Compare the length of time to effect seen in mares in anestrus verses late transitional phase with domperidone.
ambient temperature; if it is too cold, it will not work
What may alter the effectiveness of using prolactin stimulants to induce cyclicity in a mare?
improves breeding efficiency, shortens estrus, shortens interval from breeding to ovulation, and minimizes the number of times a mare must be bred to produce a pregnancy
What is the benefit of stimulating ovulation in a mare?
What drugs are used to induce ovulation in mares?
35 mm; 80% within 48 hours
What size must follicles in a mare be to ovulate with HCG administration? When will ovulation occur?
30 mm; 36-40 hours
What size must follicles in a mare be to ovulate with desolorelin/sucromate administration? When will ovulation occur?
deslorelin/sucromate because it can be used on a smaller follicle and the interval to ovulation is tighter, allowing for more precise planning for breeding
What drug is preferred to induce ovulation in thoroughbred mares and why?
2-10 days, 3-12 days
When post-prostaglandin administration will estrus occur in the mare? ovulation?
before 35 days of pregnancy because at this point the endometrial cups start producing ECG and LH activity of that causes other follicles are to be turned into CL's
When may prostaglandins cause abortion in a mare? why?
What are common prostaglandin products used in mares?
lutalyse; it causes smooth muscle contraction, and smooth muscle makes up the GIT
Which prostaglanin is notorious for causing colic sings in mares if used at the high end of the dosing interval? Why?
progesterone and estradiol- suppresses ovulation and follicular development, then prostaglandin at the end just in case any follicles lutenized in this time
What combination of drugs may be used to synchronize ovulation in mare?
depo provera, altrenogest, oxytocin, or GnRH vaccine (caution in pre-cyclic mares)
What is usually used to suppress estrus in the mare?
CL is unresponsive until 12-14 days post-ovulation; everyone else was ~5 days
Explain the difference in pigs with administration of prostaglandin?
What species cannot effectively be short cycled?
stress, exposure to boars, group weaning of piglets
What may induce estrus in the pig?
What is the only species to have true lactational anestrus?
luteolytic, luteotropic, suppress follicular growth
What is the effect of estrogen in the cow? sow? mare?
Questionable temperament, inheritable defects/conditions, poor mothering instincts, poor-quality animals, not enough homes for puppies/kittens
What are valid reasons not to breed a dog?
What is the effect of neutering after 2 years of age on mammary tumors?
these prostatic neoplasias are often androgen-dependent (no relation to prostatic parenchymal cancer)
Why are many dogs with prostatic glandular disease neutered?
no puppies, urinary incontinence (any age!), increased incidence of vaginitis (related to incontinence), weight gain, increased risk of CCL rupture/hip dysplasia (if done early)
What are downsides to neutering in female dogs?
13.8% (male), 26.3% (female)
What is the effect of neutering on the life expectancy of male and female dogs?
between 6 and 24 months (smaller breed= earlier)
When does puberty occur in dogs?
4-6 months; sperm are immature and pregnancies may not result; wait until 11.5 months in small dogs and 15-18 months in large
When are male dogs capable of ejaculation? why not breed this early? When breed?
5 months; 9 months
When do male cats begin to produce sperm? When should they be bred at the earliest?
sperm with cytoplasmic droplets; these are incapable of fertilization
What is a red flag that an animal is not mature enough to be used as a stud? Why?
2 weeks; 8 weeks
By when are male dog's testes descended? Palpable?
3-6 years; 1-8 years
What is the reproductive lifespan of a bitch? Queen?
may not accept puppies, may have cystic endometrial hyperplasia that prevents oocyte implantation, inter-cycle length is increased
What are issues with breeding older female small animals?
2/3 have this between 9 adn 17 years of age; pre-pyometra condition
What is the incidence of cystic endometrial hyperplasia in small animals? What is the danger?
20% interstitial (leydic/sertoli cells), 80% spermatogonia
What is the normal ratio of interstitial cells to spermatogonia in a male dog?
there are not the normal 80% spermatogonia present; can be immune-mediated due to damage or autoimmune issues
What does a soft, squishy testicle indicate in a male dog? Causes?
sertoli cell tumors; make estrogen and decrease sperm production
What is the most common testicular neoplasia? result?
Is it common for testicular tumors to be bilateral in the dog?
testosterone levels are MUCH higher in the testicle than they are peripherally, so levels are often normal even when there is an issue, explaining maintained libido without the ability to successfully breed
Why is testing testosterone not useful in dogs?
~2 months needed to make new sperm
Explain the timeline to production of sperm in a male dog after a very high fever.
sperm are motile and can survive and fertilize for 5-6 days
Why does mismating breeding often result in pregnancy in fogs?
estrogen increases 3-4 weeks before proestrus, peaks before ovulation. Proestrus lasts ~7 days. Single burst of LH causes lutenization and a rise in progesterone. The combined high progesterone and estrogen result in standing heat and ovulation
Explain the levels of hormones in the dog leading up to ovulation.
For how long is an oocyte fertilizable in a dog post-ovulation?
progesterone and estrogen being high lead to ovulation. Estrogen drops, and progesterone results in diestrus. At the end of diestrus, prolactin increases (pregnant or not). The interovulatory period should be 150 days, then proestrus again
Explain the levels of hormones in the dog after ovulation.
150 days minimum; needed for uterine health
How long is the interestrus interval in the dog? significance?
any animal cycling every 3-4 months should be removed from the beeding population; they develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia early, increasing the risk of pyometra
What is the effect of short cycling in the dog?
In what breed is short cycling a big issue?
In what stage of the reproductive cycle may a dog have an edematous, turgid vulva and flirt but not accept a male?
more accurately called hypertrophy; exhorbitant reaction to estrogen seen commonly on the 1st and 2nd heat of dogs where the folds of the vaginal walls meet and may protrude from the vagina
What is vaginal hyperplasia?
put a cone on to prevent licking/chewing;
NOT remove (the urethra may be in there!)
What should you do in a dog experiencing vaginal hyperplasia? What should you not?
Explain the cytologic appearance of cells in dogs in anestrus.
see pyknotic cells, and progress to anucleate squames; no parabasal cells should be present
Explain the cytologic appearance of cells in dogs in estrus.
cells begin as intermediate cells, slowly increasing to superficial cells, to some pyknotic cells
Explain the cytologic appearance of cells in dogs in proestrus.
anestrus slide will look like nothing is on it; estrus slide will be white
What is an indication that a dog is in estrus when looking at a slide with the naked eye?
otherwise you don't know when they actually ovulated
Why should you use progesterones in a dog in cytologic estrus?
nucleated, round and egg-looking, few cells total on the slide; anestrus
Describe a parabasal cell and when it will be found in a vaginal swab from a dog.
nucleus:cytoplasm raio of 1:4-8, slightly bigger and rounder than parabasal cells BUT you still see the chromatin pattern in the nucleus; proestrus
Describe an intermediate cell in a vaginal swab from a dog.
no nucleus, not scrolled up like a squame from the vestibule, may see non-degenerate/aged neutrophils but NO parabasal cells; estrus
Describe an anucleate squame in a vaginal swab from a dog.
How long is normal estrus in a dog?
How long is normal diestrus in a dog?
When a bitch's vulva becomes less turgid and discharge changes from pink/profuse to brown/scanty what stage of the cycle is she in?
when 50% of the cells on cytology are aneucleate
What is the cytologic indication that a bitch should be bred?
100 million; 200-400 million
How many normal sperm are necessary to produce conception in the dog? How many are found per ejaculate?
collect for 3 days in a row, then count the collection on the 4th day
Describe the normal method for collecting a male dog for sperm counts.
breed on days 9, 11, and 13 of proestrus
What is the pattern of breeding normally cycling dogs with normal behavior?
days 3 and 5 after a rapid rise in progesterone
If using chilled/transported semen and only breeding twice in the dog, explain the days of breeding.
breed 4-5 days post LH surge
If using chilled/transported semen and only breeding once in the dog, explain the day of breeding.
vaginal cytologies, progesterones, or daily LH measurements
How is AI breeding in the dog timed?
How long may a "tie" last in the dog?
cut it; not heritable
What should you do if you see a potential breeding dog with a persistent vestibule-vaginal band?
recheck with vaginal exam during late pregnancy to gauge likelihood of dystocia; may be heritable so discourage breeding again if it does not enlarge/relax
What should you do if you see a potential breeding dog with a juvenile vulva?
vulvar discharge (vaginal implies you know where it is from!)
What is the proper term discharge seen in a female dog?
What is one of the most common behavioral disorders seen in the cat?
co-grooming, rubbing, playing, nose-touching, resting together
What are indications that co-habitating cats are not stressed?
By what age should a kitten have met other species to ensure the highest chance they will accept it?
Where is the preferred site of petting in a cat?
soft, maintain constant temperature, preferably places to hide
What are indications that an area is appropriate for sleeping in the cat?
1-3 meters; height provides security, and vertical space provides ability to survey environment from afar
What is the "safety distance" required for a cat? purpose?
provide treats afterwards ("successful hunt")
What must be done to prevent laser pointers becoming frustrating to a cat?
not much evidence to suggest this helps
What is the relationship between pheromones and interstitial cystitis in cats?
How long should feline diet changes take, minimum?
1.5 x the length
What is the ideal relationship between the size of a cat and its litter box?
unscented, clumping litter
What litter types are often preferred by cats?
scoop daily, empty weekly, wash monthly
Describe ideal litter box maintenance.
natural behavior that maintains claws, allows spread of pheromones form the feet
What is the purpose of scratching in a cat?
1-2 changes at a time and gauge response
How should MEMO (multimodal behavior modification) be implemented for a cat?
hiding, leaving the room, not eating/drinking, stop grooming, stop vocalizing, +/- vocalizing when approached
What are signs of hidden conflict in a cat, indicating stress?
62-64 days; 58-72 days
How long is gestation in the dog post ovulation? breeding?
temperature drops to <100 6-24 hours before labor
What are physiologic parameters that are altered just prior to whelping?
restlessness, panting, nesting, vomiting
What are the signs of stage 1 labor in the dog?
How long does stage 1 labor last in the dog?
strong abdominal contractions, neonate every 30-60 mins
What are signs of stage 2 labor in the dog?
2 or more hours
What length of time between puppies should signal a problem?
passing the placenta
What are signs of stage 3 labor in the dog?
5-15 mins after each neonate or with the neonate
What are two acceptable times for the passage of placenta in a whelping dog?
summarize (name) the activity that occurs in each stage of labor in the dog.
stage 1-cervical dilation, stage 2- expulsion of the fetus, stage 3- passage of the placenta
brachycephalic dogs, dogs with narrow hips
What are breed factors that predispose a dog to dystocia?
older dogs may fatigue, 1st time mothers have higher incidence
What are age factors that predispose a dog to dystocia?
either extreme (under or overweight)
What are body condition factors that predispose a dog to dystocia?
first time mothers have higher incidence, previous history of dystocia, sire mismatch
What are history factors that predispose a dog to dystocia?
number or size
What are fetal factors that predispose a dog to dystocia?
What are more common: maternal or fetal factors of dystocia in the dog?
in primary, stage 2 labor never occurs; in secondary, a few puppies have been expelled but labor has stopped
What is the difference between primary and secondary uterine inertia in the dog?
fatigue, especially in large litters or older dogs
What is the typical cause of secondary uterine inertia in the dog?
What is the most common fetal issue in dystocia of a dog?
small litter size, anasarca, hydrocephalus, mating mismatch
What are factors that are associated with larger puppies that may cause dystocia?
ferguson reflex, a contraction
What is the reflex where you use a finger to rub the dorsal aspect of the vaginal wall in a dog in labor? intended response?
calcium and glucose
What are the most important chemistry values to evaluate in a dog in labor?
PCV is often lower in pregnant animals; look for signs of anemia in your patient
What CBC value may be altered in a pregnant dog? How do you tell if it is a normal variant or a problem?
at least 2x maternal rate or at least 160-170 BPM; anything below this
What is the expected fetal HR in a dog? What indicates fetal distress?
fetal HR and evidence of abdominal effusion that would indicate rupture of the uterus or bladder
What should you evaluate on ultrasound in a pregnant dog?
calcium increases strength of contractions, oxytocin increases frequency and quality; obstructive dystocia
What are the effects of calcium and injectable (NOT IV) oxytocin in a whelping dog? Contraindicated?
3 or less
What is the maximum number of oxytocin injections that should be given in a dystocia of a dog?
primary uterine intertia
In what case are calcium and oxytocin not contraindicated, but unlikely to help with canine whelping?
continuous followed by inverting or 2 inverting layers
What pattern should be used to close a dog uterus post c-section?
DO NOT sling, rub vigourously, use a 25g needle to nasal philtrum to stimulate breathing if necessary
What is VIP in puppy care immediately post removal by c-section?
After what day post-breeding do you begin to be concerned that there is a problem if the dog has not entered labor?
How long of heavy straining without production of a puppy signals a problem?
green or black, copious bright red, mucopurulent
What discharge prior to delivery of the first puppy is a concern?
this is placenta being delivered first and means the puppy has lost supply of oxygen
Why is green/black discharge a concern prior to the first puppy?
the cervix is open and you don't want to cause an ascending infection
Why should you always use sterile gloves on a vaginal exam in the dog?
obstruction, ferguson reflex
What are you feeling for on vaginal exam in the dog?
In a case of dystocia, choose surgical or medical management: Owners are adamant that they want live puppies, because they have already sold them for several thousand dollars.
medical management if possible, surgical if not
In a case of dystocia, choose surgical or medical management: Owners would be happy to have puppies, but are most concerned that mom makes it through ok.
caudo-ventral downward motion (simultaneous abdominal and/or rectal palpation can also help)
In what direction should a puppy be pulled in dystocia?
subcuticular or intradermal; no skin sutures if possible
What is the preferred closure of the body wall in a canine c-section?
mastiff, scottish terrier, chihuahuas
What canine breeds are notorious for having narrow hips that cause dystocia?
What is the word for eye tearing? squinting?
Keratoconjunctivitis, uveitis, glaucoma
What are the 3 most common causes of red eye?
What nerve prevents blinking if blocked? sensation?
What is the effect of uveitis on the ocular pressure?
breakdown of blood/ocular barriers in the eye causing cloudiness
proteins in the anterior chamber; optic dissection
What does aqueous flare indicate? How is it identified?
What is the #1 cause of yellow discoloration within the eye?
increased intraocular pressure
irreversible vision loss due to retinal/optic nerve destruction
What is the common sequelae to glaucoma?
hyperemia; episcleral injection
What is it called when the conjunctiva of the eye are diffusely pink/red without ability to pick out individual vessels? with the ability to pick out individual vessels?
prostaglandin release causing reduction of size and atrophy of the iris
What causes the iris to appear almost black in an animal with eye problems?
What steroid has better penetration in the eye? downside?
dexamethasone; must treat very frequently
What steroid for use in the eye is much more potent? downside?
corticosteroids: prednisolone, dexamethasone;
NSAID: flurbiprofen, diclofenac
What are topical therapeutic agents that may be used to treat uveitis.
anti-inflammatory, good ocular penetration
Explain the benefit of utilizing topical corticosteroids with uveitis.
relieve spasm of the ciliary muscles, relieving pain, decreasing synechia, and stabilizing the blood-ocular barrier
Explain the benefit of utilizing topical mydriatic/cycloplegics with uveitis.
anti-inflammatory with good ocular penetration (less than steroids)
Explain the benefit of utilizing topical NSAIDS with uveitis.
decreased gut motility and colic
What are concerns with the use of topical mydriatics/cycloplegics in the eye?
wait at least 5 minutes, ideally 10, between medications and DO NOT discontinue without consulting the vet
What is proper technique for administering eye medications?
vision, comfort, cosmesis
What are the 3 clinical outcomes ophthamologists hope to obtain?
stromal loss/disorganization, corneal melting (keratomalacia), white corneal infiltrate, reflex uveitis (miosis, hypopyon, diffuse corneal edema), deep corneal neovascularization
What processes indicate a deep ulcer (infection)?
pseudomonas, aspergillus, fusarium
What are the most likely bacterial pathogens in the equine ulcer? Fungal?
the more persistent the miosis, the more likely there is an infected ulcer because this indicates more inflammation
What is the relationship between miosis and inflammation?
How should you describe this ulcer?
because horses are more prone to aggressive fungal infections of the eye
Why are horses often prescribed ocular antifungals empirically when in dogs and cats this is considered unacceptable?
eyelid position, pupil position (miosis= inflammation), flare, deep corneal vessels, hypopyon
What are factors to assess to determine pain in a patient with an injured eye?
3-4 x daily; 6-24 x daily
With what frequency should topical antimicrobials be applied to the eye for prevention of infection? Treatment of established infection?
atropine; if the pupil is dilated, the spasm of the ciliary body has been stopped and you know it is controlled
What topical medication is used to control reflex uveitis? How do you know it is working?
What systemic medication is used to control reflex uveitis?
illness, physiology (neonates), or addition of a second drug
What values may change the volume of distribution of a drug?
changes the relationship between drug in the body and drug in the plasma, the elimination rate constant
What is the effect of changing the volume of distribution of a drug?
What value is NOT affected when changing the volume of distribution of a drug?
elimination rate constant
What is the fraction of drug in an animal eliminated per unit time?
number of units of plasma cleared of the drug per unit of time
What is the total clearance of a drug?
volume of distribution, total clearance
What two variables are used to calculate the elimination rate constant?
vod is a variable affecting elimination rate. If you alter vod, the total amount of drug in the plasma may be decreased. The body cannot clear drug that is not in the plasma. Therefore, altering vod alters the rate of elimination even though the clearance rate remains constant
Explain how the total clearance of a drug can remain constant but the drug be cleared from the body slower.
Vod in a foal is greater due to increased body water concentration, you have to give a foal about twice as much gentamycin to get the same cmax you would get in an adult horse
Explain the difference in dosing of gentamycin in a foal verses an adult horse
dose that causes toxicity
What is Cmin?
they do not achieve the peak concentration (cmax) required to produce the desired therapeutic effect. The foal also holds onto the drug longer (the elimination rate is longer), so it takes longer to get below cmin
Explain the problem with trying to use the dosing regimen of gentamycin for an adult horse on a foal.
increase your dosing interval to 24 hours and maintain efficacy. So you should have a longer interval between doses in a foal to help decrease the amount of time they stay over the cmin
How do you ensure that a foal stays below cmin for as long as possible but still receives a therapeutic dose of gentamycin?
What is the age range in which all heifers in texas must be vaccinated with Bangs?
When is a common time to do pregnancy checks in beef cattle?
increased dry period, loss of calf crop, feeding an open cow
What are costs of not preg-checking cows?
open, behavior, chronic illness/lameness, poor calf crop, low milk production (will affect calf growth), poor udder confirmation, poor mothering, age, poor fertility
What are reasons to cull a cow?
What is the #1 reason for culling beef cattle?
all permanent incisors (05); indicates animals is 4-5 years old
What does it mean to say a cow has a "full mouth"? Age indicated?
all permanent incisors but shorter (07) with pulp cavities exposed; indicates animal is 7ish but is affected by what they are grazed on
What does it mean to say a cow has a "short mouth"? Age indicated?
generally 10 or more or have eaten things that wear teeth down quickly
What does it mean to say a cow has a "broken mouth"? Age indicated?
1 per 30-35 cows
What is the appropriate bull:cow ratio?
infertile bull, disease (trich, brucellosis, vibrio, campylobacter, BVD), toxic plants, poor nutrition
What can cause open cows?
How long may active contractions last before the first puppy is produced?
becomes lethargic, dull, or exhausted, spends more than 2-3 hours of weak contractions without producing a puppy, 30 mins of strong contractions with no puppy
If a client calls with a dog having active contractions, and you are not yet worried about dystocia, what signs do you tell them to watch for and call you back?
nervous voluntary inhibition
What should you consider is a reason for delay in production of puppies in labor when a dog is surrounded by many people?
pseudopregnancy; 6-8 weeks
What may spaying a dog in heat lead to? time frame?
xylazine or detomidine (alpha-2)
what are drugs that should be given to horses being referred for colic?
45 minutes; 4.5 L per L given
How long will hypertonic saline last in a colic case? Effect per L?
what is the #1 cause of small intestinal obstruction in older horses?
25% of horses have clinically significant adhesions after colic surgery
Why will many insurance companies refuse to cover a horse that has had colic surgery?
leukopenia and neutropenia
What CBC abnormalities in the horse indicate endotoxemia?
degenerate neutrophils and bacteria
What are you looking for in an abdominocentesis in colic cases (and hoping not to find?