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Era 3: Expanding Networks of Interaction, c. 600 to c. 1450
Terms in this set (50)
Central Asian pastoralists
Great horse-based societies, Xiongnu, Turks, Mongols, expanding the Eurasian network of human interaction, BCE to the gunpowder revolution.
The camel was introduced to African trade across the difficult to cross Sahara desert in 300 CE. The expanded trade routes (gold, salt, slaves), promoted by Islamic merchants, fostered new relationships among distant Eurasian and Sub-Saharan African societies.
Buddhism in China
Spread by the Silk Roads. Gained support after the decline of Han. The message offering an escape from suffering offered more comfort than the imperial sanction of Confucianism. Championed by leadership during the early Tang Dynasty.
Dar al Islam
An Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule.
City-states (Mogadishu, Mombasa, Zanzibar, etc) along the East African Coast that thrived from the 10th to 15th centuries as part of the Indian Ocean Trade Network. Syncretic societies mixing Bantu, Arab (Islam), and Persian cultural influences, and linking Eurasia to Sub-Saharan Africa.
A traditional sailing vessel used in the Indian Ocean with one or more lateen sails, allowing ship to sail against the winds. Primarily used to carry heavy items, precious metals, wood, spices, and textiles.
Emperor of the Byzantine empire from 527-565. He aspired to reunited the eastern and western Roman Empire, and came as close as anyone. His rule was harsh but built great monuments (e.g., Hario Sofia and Hippodrome) and preserved Roman jurisprudence in a code of laws.
Born Temujin, an illiterate horseback pastoralist, he took his imperial title when he united the constantly feuding clans of the Central Eurasian steppes in the 13th century. He went on to conquer and create the largest land-based empire in world history.
Grandson of Genghis Khan (1215-1294) and founder of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China. Ruler of China in the fantastic written accounts of Marco Polo.
Italian explorer and author (1254-1324) . He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. Some of the accounts are doubted for their factual accuracy but his writings stimulate European interest in the riches of Asia.
Only woman to rule China and did so for over fifty years during the time of the Tang Dynasty in the 7th century. Championed Buddhism as an alternative to the strict patriarchy of Confucianism. But also thought to have inspired patriarchal reaction in imperial China.
Third Chinese emperor of the Ming dynasty (1360-1424). Commissioned an encyclopedia of all Chinese culture and funded Zheng He's Treasure Fleet. The name of his rule, Yongle, means Age of Perpetual Happiness.
Emperor starting the Sui Dynasty(541-604). He was a Buddhist, started construction of the Grand Canal, and thereby expanded significantly links between northern and southern China.
Also called Northmen or Norsemen. Famous as sea warriors, they built longships that carried heavy loads, and navigated both rivers and open seas, journeying from Scandinavia to Russia, Constantinople, and North America. They raided, traded, but in actuality mostly farmed, peaking in their expansive influence between the 9th and 11th centuries, gradually converting to Christianity.
Crucial to the growth of the Indian Ocean Trade Network. Merchant sailors learn to follow seasonal weather patterns southwest from Indus Valley and India in the winter and east and northeast from Arabia and Africa in the winter.
Austronesian speaking peoples who established agricultural chiefdoms throughout the vast Pacific Islands, the largest single cultural region on earth, between 3500 BCE-1000 CE. Master ocean navigators, sailing boats without a compass, using the wind, birds, and waves (stick-chart maps).
Zheng He's Treasure Fleet
Massive Chinese maritime expeditions to Southeast Asia and Africa during the 15th century, spreading Chinese prosperity and acquiring knowledge of the world. Leader was a Chinese Muslim General and Eunuch from humble beginnings.
Italian port city that prospered in Mediterranean trade after 1200, bringing silks and spices from Asia to Western Europe. Culturally Byzantine.
An economic and defensive alliance of free towns in northern Germany, along the Baltic Sea, founded in the 13th century and a powerful trade organization in the 14th century.
China's Golden Age
Under Tang and Song rule, invented and/or expanded the use of movable type, gunpowder, mechanical clock, magnetic compass, paper money, and porcelain. Included an urban revolution, with several Chinese cities surpassing a million inhabitants.
A medieval Slavic state centered around the capitol city of modern day Ukraine. Influenced by Scandinavia and Byzantium, bonded by Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Power peaked in the 10th and 11th centuries, but was later weakened by internal disputes and fell to the Mongols in 1240.
Hindu-Buddhist kingdom established around the Mekong River delta of SE Asia from the 8th to 15th centuries. Cities of brilliant stone architecture. Close cultural ties with India. Hindu elites and Buddhist commoners.
Merchant banks of Italy
Financial institutions established by Italian grain merchants beginning in the 12th century. They extended credit loans for agricultural harvests and eventually began trading these debt claims on other valuable trade goods.
Muslim Empire that ruled from AD 750 to 1258, centered in Baghdad. Developed a strong bureaucracy, focused more on administration than conquering. First Islamic state in which non-Arab Persians took part in governance. Sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of Islam.
Islamic state founded by Turkic horse pastoralists around 1300, eventually finding its capitol in Constantinople/Istanbul (1453). They were Sunni Muslims and ruled a vast multi-cultural empire in Eastern Mediterranean until the 20th century.
Immigrants who have relocated away from their ancestral homelands (either voluntarily or by force) and retain their distinct cultural identities as ethnic minority groups in their new host countries. Growth in trade during this period increased significantly the number of diasporic communities.
Morrocan Muslim scholar (1304-1369), the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
A famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described Indian Buddhism in the early Tang period (618-907).
A written base-10 number system created during the Gupta golden age in India (320-550), then adopted by Islam (via Arab sailors) before spreading to Western Europe after the 10th century.
Quick-maturing, draught resistant, rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Spread to China as a tribute gift from Vietnam during the Song Dynasty. Spurred population boom in southern China.
Agricultural innovation, floating island gardens that could produce four crops of maize a year, developed by Aztecs in the 14th century.
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal's neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles. Invented in China in the 5th century.
Beginning in the 11th century, in Western Europe, skilled workers began to organize themselves into groups to promote and preserve their industry.
Labor extracted from communities to develop state infrastructure; roads, Waru Waru, religious monuments, etc. An essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Ghana, Mali, Songhay
In the 7th-16th centuries Islamic traders inspired prosperous kingdoms in West Africa, trading gold, salt, and slaves.
The common name for a major outbreak of epidemic diseases that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, killing up to 33-40% of populations.
Revival of classical cultural tradition coinciding with revival of imperial Chinese political power. Reinforced strict patriarchy and absorbed elements of Buddhism and Daoism.
Poll tax that non-Muslims had to pay when living within a Muslim empire.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the peasant farmers who live on the land.
The states ruled by Mongol leaders; the four geographic political units (Central Asia, China, Persia, and Russia) into which the empire was divided.
Small farmers band together in protest, usually as a result of excessive tax burdens and/or food insecurity.
Indian Ocean Trade Network
The world's largest sea-based system of communication and exchange before 1500 CE. Not only luxury goods were traded but also spices, crops, and ideas. Stretched from Africa to East Asia.
Important middlemen traders (7th-11th c) based in Central Asia (Samarkand and Bukhara), forming a rich hybrid of cultural influences (Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Buddhism, and Islam), and connecting culturally lands as distant as Byzantium and Tang China.
Tool technology that helped sailors navigate by the position of the stars.
Overnight rest stations for groups of travelers participating in expanding networks of Afro-Eurasian trade.
Muslim-ruled parts of what is now Spain (8th-15th c), multi-cultural exchange flourished, eventually spreading Islamic and Greco-Roman learning to western Europe.
Mound building civilizations (800-1600 CE), like Cahokia (600-1400 CE), surplus crop maize, extensive river system trade of precious stones, sea shells, and ceramics.
Political and religious successors to Muhammad. Form of leadership, increasingly multi-cultural theocracies, experienced a golden age between the 7th-13th centuries.
Payment, in-kind gifts, made by one society to another in acknowledgment of submission. Common form of exchange practiced by imperial states.
One third of land left unplanted each year to increase fertility.
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