APUSH Chapter 36 (1991-1945)
Terms in this set (68)
Agreement with Britain that adopted the strategy to defeat Germany before concentrating on Japan
Japanese and Japanese Americans from the West Coast of the United States during WWII. While approximately 10,000 were able to relocate to other parts of the country of their own choosing, the remainder-roughly 110,000 me, women and children-were sent to hastly constructed camps called "War Relocation Centers" in remote portions of the nation's interior.
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
Court decision that upheld as constitutional for the interment of more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent in encampments during World War II.
Com. Matthew Perry
commanded the warships sent by the Washington government to persuade through force and tact ("gunboat diplomacy") the Japanese in 1854 to sign a treaty that provided for only a commercial foot in the door but really opened up relations between Japan and the United States.
Around 1900, the Japanese saw what was happening to other Asian nations as European took them over through imperialism. The Japanese transformed their entire society to copy the Europeans under this government. They industrialized, got rid of the samurai, copied European schooling and military, etc.
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.
Name for Japanese immigrants during the war who were not eligible for US citizenship b/c of their race
American-born children of Japanese immigrants; second generation Japanese Americans.
War Production Board
During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
Henry J. Kaiser
An American industrialist who won a government contract to build "Liberty Ships", which were cargo ships used in WWII. He made records when he churned out 1 ship every 14 days and became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He established the Kaiser Shipyard after which he formed Kaiser Aluminum and Kaiser Steel.
Office of Price Administration
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
Taking items that are in short supply and distributing them according to a system. For instance, during World War II, gas, sugar, and butter were a few of the items rationed in the United States.
War Labor Board
Acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.
WACS and WAVES
WACS - women in the army
WAVES - women in the navy
Term used for American soldiers in World War II, derived from the term "Government Issue"
Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren't enough workers.
"Rosie the Riveter"
symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
A. Philip Randolph
Black leader, who threatens a march to end discrimination in the work place; Roosevelt gives in with companies that get federal grants.
Negro march on Washington
In 1941 Philip Randolph and Baynard Rustin began to organize a march to Washington to protest against discrimination in the defense industries. In May Randolph issued a "Call to Negro America to March on Washington for Jobs and Equal Participation in National Defense on July, 1, 1941".
Fair Employment Practices Commission
FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE, 1941)
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), civil-rights organization founded (1942) in Chicago by James Farmer. Dedicated to the use of nonviolent direct action, CORE initially sought to promote better race relations and end racial discrimination in the United States. It first focused on activities directed toward the desegregation of public accommodations in Chicago, later expanding its program of nonviolent sit-ins to the South. CORE gained national recognition by sponsoring (1961) the Freedom Rides, a series of confrontational bus rides throughout the South by interracial groups of CORE members and supporters that ultimately succeeding in ending segregation on interstate bus routes. CORE was one of the sponsors of the 1963 civil-rights march on Washington. After 1966, when Farmer resigned, the organization concentrated more on black voter registration in the South and on community problems. Later leaders have focused on African-American political and economic empowerment and have tended to agree with civil-rights critics such as Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W.Bush. CORE leader Roy Innis supported the nominations of Robert Bork (1987) and Clarence Thomas (1991) to the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1996-98, Innis led teams that monitored elections in Nigeria. By 1999, CORE had about 100,000 members in 5 regional groups, 39 state groups, and 116 local groups.
Gross national product
former measure of the United States economy
the debt of the national government (as distinguished from the debts of individuals and businesses and political subdivisions)
Route by which the US was sending munitions to the Chinese who were resisting the Japanese
Gen. Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek, the son of a wine merchant, was born in Fenghua, China, on 31st October 1887. His father died when he was a child leaving the family in extreme poverty. He was sent to live with relatives but he ran away and joined the provincial army.
Chiang was a good soldier and he was eventually sent to the military academy in Paoting. In 1907 he attended the Military State College in Tokyo. During this period he became a supporter of Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party). During the 1911 revolution Chiang led a regiment that captured Shanghai. After the counter-revolution that followed, Chiang returned to Japan.
With the help of advisers from the Soviet Union the Kuomintang gradually increased its power in China. In 1924 Chiang became head of the Whampoa Military Academy.
Sun Yat-sen died on 12th March 1925. After a struggle with Wang Ching-Wei, Chiang eventually emerged as the leader of the Kuomintang. He now carried out a purge that eliminated the communists from the organization.
In 1926 Chiang commanded the army which aimed to unify China. He defeated the communist army and forced the survivors to make the famous Long March to Shensi in North West China. Chiang eventually established a government in Nanjing. Major financial reforms were carried out and the education system and the road transport were both improved. Chiang also established the New Life Movement in 1934 which reasserted traditional Confucian values to combat communist ideas.
When the Japanese Army invaded the heartland of China in 1937, Chiang was forced to move his capital from Nanking to Chungking. He lost control of the coastal regions and most of the major cities to Japan. In an effort to beat the Japanese he agreed to collaborate with Mao Zedong and his communist army.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Chiang and his government received considerable financial support from the United States. General Joseph Stilwell, head of American Army Forces in China, Burma and India (CBI), disagreed with this policy, arguing that Chiang was an inept leader and was ignorant of the fundamentals of modern warfare. Stilwell was accused of being pro-communist and in October 1944 Stilwell was recalled to the United States and was replaced by General Albert Wedemeyer.
During the Second World War the communist guerrilla forces were well led by Zhu De and Lin Biao. As soon as the Japanese surrendered, Communist forces began a war against the Nationalists. The communists gradually gained control of the country and on 1st October, 1949, Mao Zedong announced the establishment of People's Republic of China.
Chiang and the remnants of his armed forces fled to Formosa (Taiwan). His autobiography, Summing up at Seventy , was published in 1957. Chiang Kai-shek died on 5th April 1975.
Gen. Douglas MacArthur
During the Korean War, he was commander of Allied Forces in the South Pacific during World War II and of UN forces in Korea. He lead the American, British, and South Korean forces. MacArthur fought up until the Yalu River by the Chinese border. Truman told him to only use Korean forces in case China got involved. However MacArthur did not follow orders and sent US, British and Korean forces to fight. The Chinese responded heavily and the troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. Truman was extremely upset and dismissed MacArthur. Some believe that MacArthur was the reason that the US failed to "liberate" North Korea. Also MacArthur, while back in the states, was always publicly dismissing Truman's ideas. At one point he was even going to run for president.
Bataan Death March (1942)
American soldiers (MacArthur's men) were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors
Battle of the Coral Sea (1942)
Allied naval and air power stopped the Japanese advance and also relieved Australia from the threat of invasion. This victory was followed by the Battle of Midway Island.
Battle of Midway (1942)
In this battle the US destroyed Japanese aircraft carriers and ended Japanese offensive in the Pacific Theater; turning point
Adm. Chester Nimitz
Admiral in the Battle of Midway, He commanded the American fleet in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages-led to his victory over them
site of the US's first invasion of japanese-held territory. in august 1942, the japaense attacked the american forces with four savage attacks and were repulsed, with horrendous losses on both sides.
WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan
Marianas: Guam and Saipan (1944)
important islands from which B-29 bombers could make round trip bombing raids on Japan
..., German codes cracked by the British allowing the Allies to pinpoint the location of U-boats
Marshal Erwin Rommel
(desert fox) commanded germans at Suez Canal and caused disaster for Allies
Gen. Bernard Montgomery
A British general. Stopped Erwin Rommel from pushing them back to the Egyptian frontier
El Alamein (1942)
The German army was headed towards the Suez Canal to choke off British supplies but General Montgomery successfully defeated General Erwin Rommel, "the Desert Fox" at El Alamein, west of Cairo.
The German advance into Russia was stopped at Stalingrad by the cold and cruel Russian winter and stiff Russian resistance. With the German defeat at Stalingrad, Hitler lost all hope of defeating Russia.
The "second front"
Stalin desired for US to create this, would distract Germans from the fighting in Russia, declined by FDR twice before D-Day. June 6th 1944.
North African invasion (1942)
secret attack, largest waterborne effort, axis powers (germans and italians) surrendered
Gen. Dwight Eisenhower
American general and the 34th President of the United States (1953-1961). As supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force (1943-1945) he launched the invasion of Normandy (June 6, 1944) and oversaw the final defeat of Germany (1945). His presidency was marked by an end to the Korean War (1953), domestic racial problems, cold war with the Soviet Union, and a break in diplomatic relations with Cuba (1961).
Casablanca Conference (1943)
In the middle of the North African campaign, Roosevelt and Churchill met at Casablanca and resolved to attack Italy before invading France. They also vowed to pursue the war until the unconditional surrender of the Axis power, and tried to reduce Soviet mistrust of the west.
an announcement by FDR with Churchill's endorsement that the war would end only with this. The conquered governments would be no longer, no compromise could be reached. Later people believe that this stiffened enemy resistance
Italian campaign (1943)
The allied campaign to take Italy. It took 18 months, from 1943-1944. Italy surrendered after many beach landings and other dangerous tactics.
site of an Allied amphibious landing during the invasion of Italy, it was behind the main German defensive line (Gustav Line) and was meant to either capture Rome or draw enough forces off the Gustav Line to allow it to be broken. It did not succeed, except at drawing some force off of the Gustav Line. The Battle of Anzio was several months long and the Allies struggled to maintain their beachhead.
Tehran Conference (1943)
WWII conference between Stalin, FDR, and Churchill; its purpose was to develop a strategy for war against the Axis (open a second front)
D-Day Invasion (1944)
invasion led Dwight D. Eisenhower, started in Normandy, on june 6th 1944, was a success, turing point of WWII, first time allied forces successfully set foot in Europe
Gen. George S. Patton
As a result of the German victory at the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia, he regrouped the American troops and began an effective counteroffensive.
Liberation of Paris
1944: after Dday allies move towards Paris and Germany gave it up, all signs pointed to german defeat
Thomas E. Dewey
The Republican presidential nominee in 1944, Dewey was the popular governor of New York. Roosevelt won a sweeping victory in this election of 1944. Dewey also ran against Harry Truman in the 1948 presidential election. Dewey, arrogant and wooden, seemed certain to win the election, and the newspapers even printed, "DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN" on election night. However, the morning results showed that Truman swept the election, much to Dewey's embarrassment.
Harry S Truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Battle of the Bulge (1945)
Last Major Offensive by Germans, Largest Battle with US. Hitler tries o take out US with another Dunkirk tactic. US punch out cross Rhine and moved to Germany. Once Skies were clear, Germans were done.
Elbe River (1945)
where most of the western allies would stop due to prior agreement, 1st time American troops saw Russian troops, and decision was made to let russia take berlin
Deaths of Hitler / Roosevelt (April 1945)
April 30, 1945, after 12 years of rule, knowing Allied forces would soon be upon him (the Soviets are entering Berlin) Hitler commits suicide, Roosevelt in April 12, 1945 ; died of cerebral hemmorhage ; died in mistress's arms
"V-E Day" (May 1945)
Victory in Europe Day, the surrender of Nazi Germany
Tokyo fire-bombings (March 1945)
The U.S sent napalms out over Tokyo. 1 million people died, this weakened Japanese
Battle of Leyte Gulf (1944)
A last ditch effort by Japan's navy to wipe out American supply ships. The Americans won. p.897
Adm. William F. Halsey
With little advancement in the guadalcanel by Nimitz, created a need for change of command of the south pacific fleet. In late oct 1942 Halsey is made commander in chief during the Navel battle of Guadalcanal(Nov 12th-15th). Magic allowed Halsey to fight of 2/3's of invading fleet. This battle became a huge turning point in the war.
Iwo Jima and Okinawa (1945)
The last two Japanese island outposts fall to the allied forces - allied control of "Island Hopping"
Japanese suicide pilots
Potsdam Conference (July 1945)
Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity
Atomic bomb ("Manhattan") project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
Alamogordo test (July 1945)
The first nuclear explosion in history took place in New Mexico, at the Alamogordo Test Range, on the Jornada del Muerto (Journey of Death) desert, in the test named Trinity.
This test was intended to prove the radical new implosion weapon design that had been developed at Los Alamos during the previous year. This design, embodied in the test device called Gadget, involved a new technology that could not be adequately evaluated without a full scale test. The gun-type uranium bomb, in contrast, was certain to be effective and did not merit testing. In addition, since no nuclear explosion had ever occurred on Earth, it seemed advisible that at least one should be set off with careful monitoring to test whether all of the theoretical predictions held.
The origin of the name Trinity for this event is uncertain. It is commonly thought that Robert Oppenheimer provided the name, which would seem logical, but even this is not definitely known. A leading theory is that Oppenhimer did select it, and that he did so with reference to the divine Hindu trinity of Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Preserver), and Shiva (the Destroyer)
Hiroshima (August 6, 1945)
The first Japanese city on which an atomic bomb was dropped, killing thousands of people.
Stalin enters war (August 8, 1945)
Stalin invaded the Japanese defenses of Manchuria and Korea
Nagasaki (August 9, 1945)
The second Japanese city on which an atomic bomb was dropped.
Japanese surrender— "V-J Day" (August 14, 1945)
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945