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8.2 Cell Respiration
Terms in this set (59)
Cell respiration involves the _________ and ________ of compounds.
What makes molecules less stable?
In what process is glucose converted to pyruvate in the cytoplasm?
Glycolysis gives a small net gain of __________ without the use of ___________.
In aerobic cell respiration what happens to pyruvate?
decarboxylated and oxidized
In what reaction is pyruvate converted to acetyl coenzyme A?
The oxidation of acetyl groups is coupled to the reduction of hydrogen carriers thus liberating the carbon dioxide occurs in what cycle?
Energy released by oxidation reactions is carried tot he ____________ of the inner mitochondrial membrane by reduced ________ and__________.
cristae, NAD, FAD
The transfer of electrons between carriers in the electron transport chain is coupled to _______ _________.
In _________________ protons diffuse through ATP synthase to generate ATP.
What is needed to bind with the free protons to form water to maintain the hydrogen gradient?
The ______________ of the mitochondrion is adapted to the function it performs.
Cell respiration involves the ________ and ________ of compounds.
What are two chemical processes that ALWAYS occur together?
This happens because they involve transfer of ___________ from one substance to another.
oxidation and reduction
Oxidation is the ________ of electrons from a substance and Reduction is the ________ of electrons.
Name a example on how to visualize oxidation and reduction.
Benedicts test involves the use of copper sulphate solution containing copper ions with a charge of _____ ______ CU 2+.CU2+ often imparts a ______ or _______ color to solutions. These copper ions are reduced and become atoms of copper by being given ________. Copper atoms are __________ and form a red or orange precipitate. The electrons come from ______ molecules, which are therefore oxidized.
two positive blue, green, electrons, insoluble, sugar
Electron carriers are substances that can ______ and ______ ___ electrons as required. Electron carriers often link ______ and ______ in cells.
accept, give up, oxidations, reductions
What is the main electron carrier in respiration is _______. In photosynthesis a phosphorylated version of NAD is used called ________.
NAD (nicotinamide denine dinucleotide)
NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucletide phosphate)
Basic reaction equation
NAD + 2 electrons----> reduced NAD
The chemical details are more complicated. NAD initially has one positive charge and exists as _______. It accepts two electrons in the following way: Two hydrogen atoms are removed from the substance that is being _________. One of the hydrogen atoms is split into a __________ and an __________. The NAD+ accepts both the electron and proton of the other hydrogen atom.
NAD+, reduced, proton, electron
chemical reaction equation:
(NAD+) +(2H+)+ (2 electrons 2e)---->NADH + H+
(NAD+) + (2H)----> NADH+ (H+)
The chemical reaction demonstrates that reduction can be achieved by ___________ atoms of hydrogen, because they have an _________. Therefore, ________ can be achieved by losing hydrogen atoms.
accepting, electron, oxidation
Oxidation and reduction can also occur through loss or gain of atoms of ___________. There are fewer examples of this in biochemical processes due to in early evolution of life oxygen was absent from the atmosphere. A few types of bacteria can oxidize hydrocarbons using oxygen.
Adding _________ atoms to a molecule or ion is oxidation, because oxygen atoms have a ________ affinity for electrons and so tend to draw them away from other parts of the molecule or ion. In a similar way, _______ oxygen atoms is reduction.
oxygen, high, losing
What is the addition of a phosphate molecule (PO 3- 4) to an organic molecule?
Certain amino acid sequences act as _______ sites for the phosphate molecule on proteins.
For many reactions, the purpose of phosphorylation is to make the phosphorylated molecule more __________. This causes it be more likely to _______. Phosphorylation can be said to _______ the molecule
unstable, react, activate
The hydrolysis of ATP releases energy to the environment and is a ______________ reaction. Many chemical processes in the body are _________ which means energy absorbing and therefore do not proceed spontaneously unless coupled with an exergonic reaction that releases more energy.
metabolic process that releases energy
Metabolic process requiring the absorption of energy the products being of greater free energy than the reactants
The conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate is ____________ and the hydrolysis of ATP is _____________.
Because the reactions are coupled the combined reaction proceeds spontaneously. many metabolic reactions are coupled to the __________ of ATP.
Glycolysis gives a small net gain of ___________ without the use of oxygen.
What is the most significant consequence of glycolysis? How?
production of small yield of ATP without use of oxygen
How: by converting sugar into pyruvate
Sugar to pyruvate is an example of a __________ pathway.
ATP is used up in phosphorylating sugar.
Phosphorylation reactions ____________ activation energy required for the reactions that follow so this makes them much more likely to __________.
What is a product of glycolysis?
In glycolysis what is converted to pyruvate?
This oxidation (glycolysis) is carried out by removing __________. NOTE: it is hydrogen ATOMS that are removed.
If only hydrogen ions were removed (H+), no electrons would be removed it would not be an _______________.
The hydrogen is accepted by NAD+ which becomes NADH+H+. In the final stages of glycolysis, the phosphate group is transferred to ADP to produce more _____ and pyruvate.
In aerobic cell respiration what is the fate of pyruvate?
pyruvate is decarboxylated and oxidized
How many molecules of pyruvate are produced in glycolysis per molecule of glucose? If oxygen is present this pyruvate is absorbed in the mitochondrion where it is fully ___________.
In decarboxylations what are removed?
Carbon and oxygen in the form of Carbon dioxide
What 3 processes reduce NAD?
glycolysis, link reaction Krebs cycle
In the link reaction Pyruvate is converted into ____?
acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)
During the link reaction pyruvate is _______ and _______ to from acetyl coenzyme A.
decarboxylated and oxidized
Why is the link reaction named this?
Because it links glycolysis with the cycle of reactions that follow
In what cycle is the oxidation of acetyl groups coupled to the reduction of hydrogen carriers?
The link reaction involves one decarboxylation and one oxidation. There are two more _________ and four more ______________ in the Krebs cycle.
Most of the energy released in the oxidations of the link reaction and the Drebs cycle is used to reduce hydrogen carriers _____ and ____. The energy therefore remains in chemical form and can be passed on to the final part of aerobic cell respiration which is ____ _______.
NAD +, FAD, oxidative phosphorylation
For every turn of the Krebs cycle the production of reduced NAD occurs ______ times, decarboxylation occurs ____ and the reduction of FAD occurs _____. One molecule of ATP is generated.
Oxidative phosphorylation is when energy is released by oxidation reactions is carried to the cristae of the mitochondria by _______ ________ and _________.
reduced NAD and FAD
Reduced NAD is produced during what three process?
glycolysis, link reaction and Krebs cycle
What is produced during Krebs cycle?
What is the final part of aerobic cell respiration?
Why is it called Oxidative phosphorylation?
Because ADP is phosphorylated to produce ATP using energy released by oxidation
The electron transport chain is the transfer of electrons between carriers and is coupled to ___ ____.
The final part of aerobic respiration is called oxidative phosphorylation because ADP is phosphorylated to produce ATP using energy released by Oxidation. The main substance oxidized is ________. The energy is not released in a single step but in a series of small steps carried by a ____ of electron carriers. The protons then flow through ATP synthase down their concentration gradient providing the energy needed to make _____.
NAD, chain, ATP
In chemiosmosis protons diffuse through ____ ______ to generate ATP
Chemiosmosis couples the release of energy by oxidation to ATP ________.
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