AP Euro Chapter 28: The Age of Anxiety
Terms in this set (98)
Chief characteristic of "Age of Anxiety"
What were the three chief intellectual beliefs of modern Western culture prior to WWI and examples?
Progress: rise in standard of living
Reason: Newtonian Physics, laws that rational human beings could discover
Rights of Individual: political rights spreading to women and workers
philosophical thinking begins with human subject (how they act, feel, or live) most existentialists = atheists
humans just turn up, after that, they seek to define themselves
Where did existentialism first attain prominence and where did it first come into age?
no meaning in world, no bad or good, things just happen, have to put meaning to it
life, people and the world have no meaning
Danish philosopher, wrote "Either, Or", about Christianity, ethics, philosophy. First existentialism philosopher. Reality over abstract. Individual relationship with Jesus. Each individual responsible for giving meaning to life. Rejected formalistic religion. Made total religious commitment to God.
Social constructs put in place. Society behave in certain way because of social norms and religious beliefs
German philosopher, wrote "Being and Time", most important philosophical work in 20th century. West civilization lost sight of being, they ask questions AFTER the fact. Should be asking questions before WWI
German philosopher, wrote "Birth of Tragedy", "Gay Science", "Thus Spoke Zarathustra", "Beyond Good and Evil", "Genealogy of Morals".
Attacked Christianity, democracy, science, progress, nationalism. Topics: will to power, God is dead, Master and slave morality, ubermensch, Christianity
"God is dead"
Not an atheist, fought against what Christianity has become, religion softened and became passive. Ex: Easter bunny has nothing to do with Jesus rising from the dead. Lost meaning of God.
Slave morality glorified...
weakness and envy
French philosopher. Convinced that thru his writing immediate experience was as important as rational thinking. Religious experience= more accessible to human comprehension than scientific law.
Marxian socialist. Socialism would come to power with strikes of workers and would shatter capitalist society
wrote "Tractatus Logico Philosphicus" (Essay on Logical Philosophy). Philosophy only logical clarification of thoughts. Said, "Of what one cannot speak, of that one must keep silent".
What was Satre's statement? What does it mean?
"man condemned to be free"
Means there's possibility of giving meaning to life thru actions of defining oneself thru choices. Have to become engaged and choose own actions in awareness for their own behavior.
wrote "Stranger" (1942)
Man's thoughts before execution for murder
"Crime and Punishment"
How did loss of faith in reason and progress affect Christianity?
Christian existentialist shared loneliness and despair of atheistic existentialists and stressed human being's sinful nature. They needed faith and God's forgiveness.
Sought to recreate religious intensity of Reformation. Humans are imperfect and sinful, their reason and will is flawed, truth made thru GOd.
Believed Catholicism gave hope and piety
How did New Physics challenge Newtonian Physics?
old physics- explain how universe operates, reason for everything
new physics- lacked objective reality, no more easy answers, science is not as easy --> confusion
Polish, discovered radium constantly emits subatomic particles and doesn't have constant atomic weight
German physicist, showed that subatomic energy emitted in uneven little spurts called "quanta". Matter and energy might be diff forms of same thing
German/Jewish genius, time and space relative to viewpoint of observer. Only speed of light is constant for all frames.
Showed atom could be split
German physicist, "Principle of Uncertainty" states that it's impossible to predict speed and position and behavior of individual electron
Father of psychoanalysis. Theme: sublimation - transfer unwanted impulse into something less bad. repression - repress memories, everything you learn stays in your head, but depends on if you can access it. Studies dream analysis. Human behavior= irrational and compromise between instinctual drives and controls thinking
unorganized part of brain that deals with instinctual drives (irrational). Driven by sexual, aggressive pleasure. Seeking desires in constant battle with ego (what a person can do) and superego (what a person should do)
struggle between father and son over mom's affection
free writing, mind doesn't make sense
"Remembrance of Things Past" tried to discover innermost meaning of childhood memories
Wrote about women's issues
"The Sound and the Fury" intense drama, confusedly seen thru eyes of an idiot
"The Waste Land" depicts world of growing desolation, saw hope for humanity's salvation after converting to Anglo-Catholicism
"The Trial", "The Castle"
portray helpless individuals crushed by hostile forces
Used psychological terror to strip individual of its humanity
#1 writer, wrote "Ulysses" parallels the Odyssey in Latin, epic hero: Leopold Blum goes on journey for one day (June 16, 1904). Has problems, he's an Irish Jew, wife is unfaithful, son died, and he's still a good person. Mirrors modern life: riddle waiting to be unraveled
wrote "Finnegan's Wake"
Combined fine art (painting/sculpture) with applied arts (printing/weaving) Had plaster, columns, gargoyles
main contributor of Bauhaus
"Less is more"
Designed 1st skyscraper with steel and glass and electric elevators
movement towards "functionalism" - serve to full purpose it was made for. Form follows function
Began in Paris, small brushstrokes, accurate depictions of light, movement. They sought to capture the momentary overall feeling or impression of light falling on real life scene.
impressionist; reflective nature of light in water, blotches of color
Post impressionism, more use of color, distort reality. Expressionists either fascinated in light or form.
Believed painters shouldn't try to paint what the eye actually saw
emphasis on simply color
Committed to form and ordered design. Moved toward 2D plane
"Wild beasts". Expressionism group of painters led by Matisse. Got name from being so extreme in Paris. Painted real objects, concerned with arrangement of color, line, etc
Cubism- complex geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply angled overlapping planes
Painted "Gorneca" (middle of Spanish civil war)
Name means "hobbyhorse" or nonsense. Attacked standards of art, painted Mona Lisa with a mustache
Dadaists attracted to surrealism. Painted fantastic world of wild dreams an complex symbols. Focused on irrational side; "Persistence of Memory" (melted watches)
dissonant rhythms, unrecognizable harmonies, musical notes not united by key. Opera and ballet didn't flourish until after WWI. Generally resisted until WWII
-"The Rite of Spring" caused riot because of dissonant rhythms
-"Wozzeck" 1/2 sung, 1/2 spoken, harsh music
-led abandonment of traditional harmonies
"Triumph of the Will"
Nazi propaganda. By Leni Riefenstahl.
Who was dominant in silent-film industry?
US - major filming business (Hollywood)
Where were movie factories first set up?
Where was the first movie house?
king of silver screen, symbolized happiness in cruel world
How did movies affect society & politics?
Society: Escape from life's hard realities
Politics: tools of indoctrination (teaching someone how to accept your ideas and not consider other ideas)
Radio: US vs. Britain
US - privately owned, financed by ads
BR - independent, public corporation, supported by licensing fees
How did the radio affect politics?
Radio: Good for propaganda, Hitler speeches frequently on radio
What was the Maginot Line?
defensive fortification, developed fortified trench for next world war, irrelevant by 1930
Why did France want to implement all provisions of Versailles treaty?
France need lots of money to repay US, suffered most damage from WWI, Allies deserted them. German reparations= necessity, provisions were their best hope
Britain on Versailles treaty
Britain needed Germany to be prosperous, its essential to their economy
John Maynard Keynes
"Economic Consequences of Peace" - believed harsh reparations would make all countries struggle
BR and US turned back on FR. FR looks to newly formed easter europe states. 1921 - mutual defense with Poland, Czechs, Romania, & Yugoslavia against Hungary. =JOKE
What was the Ruhr?
Heartland of German industrialization
Crisis in Ruhr
French moved armies out of Rhineland and into Ruhr to force Germany to pay reparations. Germany told workers to stop working, paralyzed economy. Needed to support workers, printed money, German money lost value. German inflation --> blamed gov, Jews, workers, etc
Called off resistance in Ruhr. Agreed to pay reparations. Asked for reexamination of Ger ability to pay. Accomplished Dawes Plan and Spirit of Locarno. Germany join League of Nations.
German reparations reduced yearly, depended on level of German economic prosperity. Got large private loans from US to pay France and Britain so they pay US back.
Spirit of Locarno
Small town on German/Swiss border. Germany and France promise to respect sovereignty (supreme power) of each other. Accept common border. BR and Italy agree to fight FR or Ger if one invaded the other. Pact gave sense of security and stability. Germany accept loss of Alsace Lorraine, Sudetenland, and Rhineland. New currency established.
Outlaws war. 64 countries.
What two groups in Germany battled for support of workers?
Communists and socialists
Where did power reside in Germany and France?
What country appealed to foreigners?
Problem in france
split rural and urban
What book did Hitler write in prison?
Mein Kampf (My Struggle). Hitler's nationalist socialist group got 12 insignificant seats in Reichstag
What did Britain grant South Catholic Ireland?
Full autonomy (self-rule)
Feel like conservatives and liberals not doing enough. Replaced liberal party as main opposition to conservatives. System without gov involvement is absurd. Liberals believe in small gov. Need big gov. Laborers want more rights to workers and more gov involvement.
Labour party president. Don't have enough money to live up to their promises. Taxing rich will make them leave. Moves slowly towards socialism so middle class not frightened by working class winning new benefits.
Great Depression causes
-over production, underconsumption
-buying "on margin"
-mass production of goods can't be bought by average person
What is buying "on margin"?
buy small fraction of stock, borrow rest from stockbroker, when prices fell, had to put in more money or sell
US problem in financial crisis
put high tariffs on high imported goods
should have been lowering tariffs because people don't have money to buy anything
Areas not struggling with Great Depression?
Effects of unemployment
poverty, boredom, decrease birthrates, increase suicide and mental illness
What was Herbert Hoover's plan during Great Depression?
Dont do anything, its a typical economic cycle
FDR's New Deal
Relief (offer jobs to average workers)
Reform (end laissez faire, gov't need more active role)
Good, but never pulled US out of Depression
Agricultural Adjustment Act 1933
aimed at raising prices and farm income by limiting production
Natural Recovery Administration
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
goal to decrease unemployment, build bridges b/c cheap labor and low interest rates, provide welfare for all Americans
What was the Scandinavian response to the economic crisis?
Cooperative community action. Used large scale deficits (borrowed from rich people and spent money on public works during times of crisis and when economy is good, pay) developed middle way between sick capitalism and cruel communism.
How did Britain respond to the depression?
Had economic growth. Low interest rate led to housing boom. Textile and coal industry decline, automobiles and electrical appliance industry rise.
How did France respond to the depression?
BAD. Took longer for depression to hit, stayed longest. Society is split, parties couldn't cooperate. Left-communists (workers) Right-fascists (owners, wealthy, farmers). Gov limit work week
(France) led by Blum. socialists, communists, radicals vs. fascists.
Spanish civil war
French factory owners & rich go behind fascists (Franco) fascists win. French communists support Spanish republicans.
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