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-richest and most powerful kings
-doubled the size of his kingdom
-a strong central goverment and divided the kingdom into provinces ruled by governors
- muslin- pilgrammage to mekkah--joined by thoughs of servants and soldiers-- he started to give gold so much it started to fall
- wanted timbuktu the center of the Islamic learning and culture.
created a new dynasty
-Songhai began to expand
- lead alot of military campaigns
-conquered new and old territories
Timbuktu and Djenne- gave control of trading empire- salt and gold
- controlled gov- uniting rural and city dwellers
a muslim military commander
- overthrew the son of Sunni Ali
-New dynasty- Askia
- expanded(following what sunni did)
-trade got even better
-1600 it fell
- founder of Mali
-defeated Ghana and captured its capital
- strong gove and united people
- famous trading city Timbuktu
-taxed the people
stretches along the equator and makes about 10% of the continent.
heavy rans and warm temps produce dense forest where little farming and little traveling are possible
tsetse fly- infects animals and people with sleepy sickness
across the northern coast and southern tip of Africa. Moderate rainfail, warm temperature and fertile land produce abundant crops that support a large populations
broad grasslands dotted with small trees and shrubs, exist both in north and south of the rain forest. cover about 40% of Africas land. Enough rainfall for farming and herding, but rain is unreliable
-main people of trade
- camel caravan (camels well adapted to desert areas)
- merchantbecame wealthy had to pay tax to get rare item and then sold it to berbers
- founded by arabs- combined cultures
-indian sea which is good for trading
- they exported ivory , frankincenses, myrrh, and slaces
-It imported textiles, metal goods, wine , and olive oil
-Competed with kush for ivory trade (neighboring state)
-Axumite rulerinvaded and conquered kush
-king was christian- (ship wrecked Syrians)
- was controlled by Egypt
--750 kushites conquered Egypt
-but they used bronze and ston weapons and assyerians with iron spears and swords!
-got driven out of Egypt retured to orginal place upper Nile valley
-at first economy based on farming
- then major trading route Meroe.
-Learned iron smelting from assyrians - made iron weapons and tools.
-several years doinng good wiht trading
kush had iron products, gold, ivory, ebony, and slaves- India, Arabia, Roman Empire, central and eastern Africa\recieved luxuray goods back
King and subject
- the royal familiesand the aristocracy were largel isolated from the rest f the people. In africa its wasnt as extreme
-frequently they would hold a meeting to let people voice there complaints
-Still highest position
-Help king a subject because merchants recieved favors from the king and the kings treasury was filed with taxes by merchants . It was certainly to benefit of the king to maintain law and order in the kingdom so that the merchants could practice their trade. ex.
he was closer to them than normal rulers in other countries were, so he got what he needed out of them, like tax money a lot easier, and he helped the merchants & people ouutt
the role of women
- usually subodrinate to men in africa.
- Was a bit more respected
-women worked in the fields
-some communities women were merchants
-Lineage was based on the mother not father- matrillineal societies rather than patrillineal
- women permitted to inherent property and the husband was often excepted to move into his wifes house
-children and house and stuff too
culture and religion
- mono , poly, heno
Yoruba ppl from Nigeria
--- sent down his son Oduduwa frome a canoe to create the first human )practiced by many slaves)
-diviners did rituals (very important)- believed to fortetell an event. worked for king
-ancestory- they had the power to influence , good or evil, the lives of their descendants. (closer to god)
-2 stages one on earth afterlife
- rock painting from hunting to trading
-wood carvings- masks and statues
-Yoruba people created a sculpture f bronze and iron
-life sculptures may have influence benin
-Music- religious purpose
-communitcate with spritits through dance
-music- about historyy
-sotroytelling usually by priest called griots
Afriacan Rhythms to Rock and Roll
- Music and dance- important for festivals and religious rituals
-did call and response, imporvistion, and polythmic percussion(multiple beats at once)
-popular in 1890's African American incorperated these tradtions with european music making the blues (solo and guitar), and ragtime(piano)
- Blues,ragtime,brasband,and synopated dance music turned into jazz
- 1940-50 american forms: rhythm and blues, rock
and roll funk, hip -hop, and rap
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