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used his vast knowledge on science of the past and present to communicate this information in a witty, clear way to upper-class audiences --- hence, science became part of literature (not just limited to the experts and their jargin) --- also downplayed religion thus contributing to skepticism
attacked superstitution, dogmatism, and religious intolerance (his view - trying to get people to believe in particular set of religious ideas = wrong) in his Dictionary, attacked religious heroes like David (portraying him as a lowly evil worm)
contributed to the Enlightenment in his Travels, account of journey where he discovered Tahiti, New Zealand, and Australia (this brought the "natural men"/"noble savages" to the attention of the Europeans)
he critisized French institutions; did not support - traditional religion, slavery; did support - religious toleration, use of reason; distinguished 3 basic gov'ts (republics, monarchies, depotism) and we see the development of separation of powers (i.e. checks and balances)
supported: England, religious toleration (cool quote bottom page 514), Deism (God as the Clockmaker - world runs according to natural laws); didn't support: traditional religion ("religious fanatisism"), ills oppressing France
The Great Editor of this time period -- compiled all the worthy important thoughts of the philosophes into his Encyclopedia (almost was censored but he got by w/ a little help from Madame Pompadour) thus changing the general way of thinking
rationalist -- he supported deductive reasoning, said that the only miracle was that people still believed in miracles (ouch) -- a Diest view
leader of the Physiocrats (economists of the era), believes land = sole source of wealth -- supported laissez-faire (people should pursue own economic interests)
economist ; condemned tariffs (free trade is good), said labor = sole source of wealth, and believed there was a natural order to the economy (forced by the "Invisible Hand of the Market Place") and 2 natural laws of this order = 1) law of supply & demand, 2) law of competition --- basically preaching ANTI-MERCANTILISM - this = the birth of modern capitalism -- supported laissez-faire - the more gov't involvement the more chaos
First Modern Atheist -- there is no God, now let's move on...also was a materialist, believing that everything in the world is made up of matter - humans - simple machines (no such thing as "soul"), God = figment of human imagination, chemical reactions create thoughts
humans have progressed through 9 stages of history and now that we're finally getting rid of limitations (i.e. religion and the estate system), we can use reason and spread of science to enter 10th stage in history - a stage of perfection (ironic, seeing as he rots away in jail and dies...)
state of nature = humans happy & at peace; three lies: 1) private property 2) gov't ("evil but necessary" -- created to protect supposed private property) 3) religion (added to society so humans can have value); developed the general will; "Father of Field Trips" b/c only way you can learn = experience (opposite of Locke); on women -- men belong in the dominant sphere and women in the domestic (submissive, inferior) sphere, if a woman should try to advance herself, she will disrupt the natural order of society and create chaos; also was father of Romanticism
opposed overuse of capital punishment (the death penalty) -- punishments should only be used as deterrents, not acts of brutality
a modernist in believing that through education, women can advance themselves, also argued for equality of sexes in marriage
builds upon Astell's Serious Proposal: economic and political freedoms would follow after education, attacks false premises of Rousseau, 2 contradictions: 1) "women must obey men" - ironic, since this is being said by same people who believed that system of arbitrary powers of monarchs over subjects/slaveowners over slaves = wrong 2) "subjection of women to men" - Enlightenment = based on ideal that reason is innate in all human beings, so if women have reason, they're entitled to same rights as men
Baroque musician -- stormy international career and profoundly secular in temperament, yet is ironically best known fo his religious music (Messiah)
spent most of adult life as musical director for wealthy Hungarian princes, then went to England where is introduced to musicians who wrote for the public, not patrons, and this "liberty" induced him to dedicate some new music to the common people; incredibly prolific (wrote 104 symphonies)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
a child prodigy who started great and then "fizzled out," unable to find patrons to work for, and eventually died a pauper at just 35
Count Nikolaus von Zinzendorf
spread the teachings of Pietism; he and his Moravian Brethren illustrated a reaction to the overuse of rationalism during this period; supported mysticism "He who wishes to comprehend God with his mind becomes an atheist."
originally an ordained Anglican minister, he went through a mystical experience which ultimatlely led to the creation of Methodism; his revivalism was a mass movement which embraced religion in this Age of Reason - Grace of God, mercy, etc.
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