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Anatomy & Physiology (Saladin) - Chapter 26
Terms in this set (97)
body weight seems to have a stable, homeostatic set point; heredity explains ____ % to ____ % of the variation
30% to 50%
aside for the percentage of variation in body weight explained by heredity, the rest of the variation in weight appears to be a result of ____, such as eating and exercise
A variety of peptide hormones and regulatory pathways are known to control short- and long-term appetite and therefore influence body weight
short-term regulators on appetite are: ____, ____, & ____
ghrelin, peptide yy (PYY), and chlecystokinin (CCK)
A variety of peptide hormones and regulatory pathways are known to control short- and long-term appetite and therefore influence body weight.
long-term regulators on appetite are: ____ & ____
insulin & leptin
Ghrelin, Peptide YY (PYY), Cholecystokinin (CCK), Leptin, and Insulin have receptors in the ____
____ feeding centers regulate hunger and satiety
____ peptides act as chemical signals from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain
Ghrelin is secreted by ____ cells in the gastric fundus, particularly when the stomach is - full or empty?
parietal cells; empty
What does ghrelin produce/stimulate?
produces the sensation of hunger and stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete growth hormone-releasing hormone priming the body to take advantage of the nutrients that are about to be absorbed
Ghrelin stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete what hormone?
growth hormone-releasing hormone
Peptide YY (PYY) is secreted by ____ cells in the ____ and ____
enteroendocrine; ileum; colon
Peptide YY comes from the ileum and colon in the ____ intestine
The primary impact of PYY is to...
signal satiety and terminate eating
PYY is stimulated by...
food in the stomach
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is secreted by ____ cells in the ____ and ____
enteroendocrine; duodenum; jejunum
PYY is secreted in the ____ intestine, while CCK is secreted in the ____ intestine
CCK stimulates secretion of ____ and ____ enzymes, but also stimulates the brain and sensory fibers of the ____ nerve; produces an ____ effect
bile; pancreatic; vagus; appetite-suppressing
These two hormones regulate long-term appetite and serves as ____ signals informing the brain how much ____ tissue the body has and activating mechanisms for adding or reducing ____
adiposity; adipose; fat
____ is secreted by adipocytes throughout the body
Animals with a ____ deficiency exhibit overeating and obesity
In humans, is it a leptin deficiency that is associated with obesity? If not, what is the issue?
No, it appears to be a deficiency in leptin receptors
____ is secreted by pancreatic beta cells
insulin stimulates ____ and ____ uptake and promotes ____ and ____ synthesis
glucose and amino acid; glycogen and fat
Does insulin or leptin have a stronger impact on the body's appetite?
Leptin has a stronger impact
What are the two networks in the arcuate nucleus?
Neuropeptide and Melanocortin
Neuropeptide (NPY) and melanocortin are neural networks in what structure?
What roles do the neuropeptide (NPY) and melanocortin neural networks play in eating and appetite?
NPY stimulates appetite, while melanocortin inhibits eating
Ghrelin has a/an ____ impact on the NPY pathway
PYY has a/an ____ impact on the NPY pathway
CCK has a/an ____ impact on the NPY pathway
Insulin has a/an ____ impact on the NPY pathway
Leptin has a/an ____ impact on the NPY pathway
leptin has no impact
Leptin has a/an ____ impact on the melanocortin pathway
Leptin stimulates the secretion of appetite stimulants called ____
peptides that regulate appetite, metabolic rate, and body weight over weeks to years
Where are the parietal cells that release ghrelin located?
secreted by parietal cells on the empty stomach...look at the lining of the stomach; deep glandular pits in the stomach that include cells responsible for producing hormones and acid to promote low pH; in the glandular pits, there are also parietal cells
Insulin and leptin drive activation of mechanisms for adding or reducing ____ in the body
refers to all chemical reactions that occur in an organism
The nutrient pool is the source of substrates for catabolism & anabolism, consisting mostly of ____, ____, and ____
fatty acids; glucose; amino acids
What is catabolism?
breaks complex units into smaller units
What is anabolism?
synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones with the storage of energy
What is the main form of fat we take in?
We break proteins down into ____
We store glucose as ____
____, ____, and ____ are the main nutrients that can be used for ATP synthesis
Fatty acids; glucose; amino acids
____ are an important part of our diet and must be transported to all parts of the body, yet they are ____ and do not dissolve in aqueous blood plasma
What are lipoproteins?
tiny droplets with a core of cholesterol and triglycerides and a coating of protein and phospholipid
The coating of protein and phospholipids on lipoproteins allow lipids to...
remain suspended in blood and serves as a recognition marker for cells that absorb them
The density of lipids is determined by what?
the amount of proteins on them?
Our body uses lipoproteins to transport ____ and ____ in particular
What are the four categories of lipoproteins?
(2) very low-density lipoproteins
(3) low-density lipoproteins
(4) high-density lipoproteins
How are lipoproteins broken up into the four categories? As in, what is the breakdown based upon?
Are high concentrations of LDLs or HDLs bad for you?
Where are chylomicrons produced? What cells and what structure?
absorptive cells in the small intestine
____ absorbs chylomicron from the ____
lymph; small intestine
Does chylomicron directly enter the blood stream?
no; it goes through the lymphatic system
What removes lipids from chylomicrons?
After lipoprotein lipase removes lipids from chylomicron triglycerides, it hydrolyzes chylomicron triglycerides into ____ and ____
monoglyceride; free fatty acids
lymph fluid is delivered to the circulatory system in what region?
Any remaining chylomicron is removed and degraded by the ____
The monoglycerides and free fatty acids created by the lipoprotein lipase can ____ through ____ walls into adipocytes where they are resynthesized into ____
pass; capillary; storage triglycerides
the high-density lipoproteins has the highest proportion of ____ to ____
protein to lipid
the high-density lipoprotein is about ____ % protein
the low-density lipoprotein is about ____ % protein
very low-density lipoproteins are produced by the ____
very low-density lipoproteins transport ____ to adipose for storage
What happens when a triglyceride is removed from a very low-density lipoprotein?
it becomes a low-density lipoprotein
low-density proteins contain mostly - cholesterol, protein, triglyceride, or phospholipid?
cholesterol; it's over 50% cholesterol
Cells that need ____ absorb LDLs via ____ endocytosis
What type of process do cells that need to obtain cholesterol use? What type of lipoproteins do they want?
receptor-mediated endocytosis; LDLs
How do cells that absorb LDLs digest them? And where do they release the cholesterol after they are digested?
lysosomal enzymes; intracellular use
Where are high-density lipoproteins produced?
What does the liver produce when it creates an HDL?
an empty, collapsed protein shell
What is the HDL cell made up of?
Where does the HDL cell go after it leaves the liver?
travels in the blood and picks up cholesterol and phospholipids from other organs
What does the empty, collapsed protein HDL shell pick up?
cholesterol and phospholipids
Where do filled HDLs go?
back to the liver
When the filled HDL cells get back to the liver, what happens?
the liver excretes excess cholesterol and bile acids
What is the whole HDL pathway?
(1) liver releases an empty, collapsed protein shell
(2) this shell goes to organs and picks up cholesterol and phospholipids
(3) the filled shell goes back to the liver
(4) the liver excretes excess cholesterol and bile acids
(5) this is no a very low-density lipoprotein or low-density lipoprotein
What are the two things that can happen when the liver produces a VLDL?
(1) it can have triglycerides removed and be stored in adipocytes
(2) it can become an LDL containing mainly cholesterol
What is the chylomicron pathway?
(1) the small intestine creates chylomicron
(2) the lymph absorbs chylomicron from small intestine
(3) lymph drains into the bloodstream
(4) lipoprotein lipase removes lipids from chylomicrons
(5a) After lipoprotein lipase removes lipids from chylomicron triglycerides, it hydrolyzes chylomicron triglycerides into monoglycerides and free fatty acids
(5b) lipids are stored by adipocytes or used in other cells
(6) liver disposes of chylomicron remnants
carbohydrates are absorbed as ____, ____, or ____
glucose; galactose; fructose
____ and ____ are quickly converted to glucose
galactose and fructose
fructose and galactose are quickly converted to ____
cells convert the energy stored in glucose to the energy stored in ____
cells convert the energy stored in ____ to the energy stored in ATP
Almost all oxidative carbohydrate consumption happens ultimately through glucose catabolism...what is the formula?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
Glucose is the major molecule that is funneled into the ____ cycle during ____ respiration
glucose, galactose, and fructose are all structural ____ of each other
What organ(s) convert galactose and fructose to glucose?
small intestine and liver
What are the three major pathways of glucose catabolism?
(2) anaerobic respiration
(3) aerobic respiration
What happens in glycolysis (during glue catabolism)?
splits a glucose molecule into two molecules of pyruvic acid
What happens in anaerobic respiration?
reduces pyruvic acid to lactic acid without oxygen
What happens in aerobic respiration?
oxidizes pyruvic acid to CO2 and H2O using oxygen
What is the formula for pyruvic acid?
What happens in reduction?
gains an electron
What happens in oxidation?
loses an electron
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