Vital Scientific Terms (I)
Terms in this set (109)
Water that has frozen into solid form.
A large mass of ice floating at sea, usually broken off of a polar glacier.
A cell that differs greatly from the surrounding cells or tissue.
Rock formed by the solidification of molten magma.
The third and lowest portion of the small intestine, extending from the jejunum to the pouch-shaped cecum at the beginning of the large intestine.
A mineral, usually found in basic metamorphic and igneous rocks, consisting of a mixed oxide of iron and titanium.
An organic white crystalline base that inhibits the action of histamine.
Liquids that are insoluble in one another, or cannot undergo blending or mixing.
A joint in which the bones interlock and are held together by bony processes that prevent the joint from moving.
A diffuse, complex network of interacting cells, cell products, and cell-forming tissues that protects the body from pathogens and other foreign substances, destroys infected and malignant cells, and removes cellular debris. The system includes the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and lymph tissue, stem cells, white blood cells, antibodies., and lymphokines.
The ability of plants and animals to withstand harmful infective agents and toxins.
Also called vaccination or inoculation; a method of stimulating resistance in the human body to specific diseases using microorganisms- bacteria or viruses- that have been modified or killed.
Occur when one or more of the components of the immune system are active.
A group of proteins produced by white blood cells and act as antibodies.
The scientific study of the way the immune system works in the body, including allergies, resistance to disease, and acceptance or rejection of foreign tissue.
A contagious infection of the skin characterized by blisters that form yellow-brown scabs caused by staphylococcal and streptococcal bacteria.
The process by which a fertilized egg implants in the uterine lining.
The inability of a male to perform sexual intercourse, usually because erection of the penis cannot be achieved or sustained.
The electrochemical transmission of a signal along a nerve fiber that produces an excitatory or inhibitory response to a target tissue, such as a muscle or another nerve.
Breeding that involves crossing plants or animals that have the same or very similar sets of genes.
Emitting light as a consequence of being heated to a high temperature.
The light wave that strikes the surface.
The tilting of a planet's axis in relation to its orbit around the sun.
A machine made of a flat surface with one end higher than the other.
The keeping of a premature or unwell baby in an environment in which the temperature, humidity, and oxygen levels can be easily controlled.
Index of Refraction
The ratio of speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in a medium.
An instrument or gauge that measures something and registers the measurement.
A species whose presence, absence, or relative well-being in a given environment is indicative of the health of its ecosystem as a whole.
Difficulty in digesting food, resulting in such symptoms as belching, heartburn, or stomach pains.
A soft silvery-colored rare metallic chemical element, often found in zinc and tin ores, used in alloys, transistors, and electroplating.
To produce (an electric current) by induction.
A substance that does not burn and does not change when it is heated. It does not produce a reaction when it is mixed with other chemicals.
The property of matter to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force.
Invasion by and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms in a bodily part or tissue, which may produce subsequent tissue injury and progress to overt disease.
Physically incapable of conceiving offspring.
A response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat.
Flu; an acute contagious viral infection characterized by inflammation of the respiratory tract and by fever, chills, muscular pain, and prostration.
The study of how to collect, use, move, store, and display information. It uses computers, fax machines, television, and radio.
Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves.
Vibrations in matter that are less than 20 vibrations per second and are too slow to be heard.
To take something such as food or liquid into the body by swallowing or absorbing it.
A person or animal that lives in a particular place or area.
A substance that stops or slows a chemical reaction.
To introduce a drug, vaccine, or other fluid into part of the body using a syringe.
Physical damage to the body or a part of the body.
Of, or relating to compound not containing hydrocarbon groups.
All the parts of the biosphere that are not living things nor products of living things.
Affecting the contraction of muscle, especially heart muscle.
Information put into a communications system for transmission or into a computer system for processing.
A legal term defining behavior influenced by mental instability.
An air-breathing invertebrate animal (arthropod) that has well-defined segments, including a head, thorax, abdomen, two antennae, three pairs of legs, and usually two sets of wings.
The drawing of air into the lungs; inhalation.
An inborn pattern of behavior characteristic of a species and shaped by biological necessities such as survival and reproduction.
The act of protecting something by surrounding it with material that reduces or prevents the transmission of sound or heat or electricity.
A material or device that prevents or reduces the passage of heat, electricity, or sound.
A microelectric computer circuit incorporated into a chip or semiconductor.
An outer protective layer or part of animal or plant, for example, a shell, rind, husk, or skin.
The amount or degree of strength of electricity, light, heat, or sound per unit area or volume.
Intensity of Illumination
Amount of light per second falling upon a unit area of a surface being illuminated, expressed in lumens per unit area.
In Physics and Chemistry, a physical property of the system that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system.
Referring to materials which are found between cells.
Equipment or programs designed to communicated information from one system of computing devices or programs to another.
Process in which two or more waves arriving at the same point at the same time combine to produce a single new wave.
A complex protein (glycoprotein) that is produced by cells in response to a virus or bacterium and that inhibits virus development.
The pathway traveled by ions inside a galvanic cell.
Energy contained in a substance.
International Date Line
The imaginary line that separates two consecutive calendar days, and sits on the 180° line of longitude in the middle of the Pacific Ocean opposite the Prime Meridian.
A nerve cell found entirely within the Central Nervous System that acts as a link between sensory neurons and motor neurons.
A section or part between nodes, as of a nerve or stem.
The period during which a cell is not actively dividing, when other activities such as DNA Synthesis take place.
A mathematical procedure which estimates values of a function at positions between listed or given values.
The part of the digestive system between the stomach and the anus or cloaca that digests and absorbs food.
Igneous rock formed by the solidification of magma under the surface of the Earth.
A muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels, excluding the heart.
An enzyme that converts insulin to levulose.
A fructose sugar found in the roots and tubers of various plants and is used medically in a test that assesses whether the kidneys are functioning properly.
An animal such as an insect or worm that does not have a backbone.
Describing a decrease in the size of an organ, as in the shrinking of the womb after pregnancy.
A salt of iodic acid, as sodium iodate, NaIO₃.
A poisonous, dark gray to purple-black, lustrous, and nonmetallic crystalline element in the halogen family used as a germicide and antiseptic and in the preparation of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and tinctures.
An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons.
The electrostatic bond between two ions formed through the transfer of one or more electrons.
Bonding between atoms produced by electron transfer.
A chemical compound in which ions are held together in a lattice structure by ionic bonds.
The transmission of electric current by ions.
A chemical equation in which electrolytes are written as dissociated ions. Ionic equations are used for single and double displacement reactions which occur in aqueous solutions.
The formation of ions by separating atoms or molecules or radicals, or by adding or subtracting electrons from atoms by strong electric fields in a gas.
A naturally occurring radioactive isotope of thorium.
The atmospheric layer in which the pressure is small, the air molecules are scarce, and the intensity of sunlight is great so that many ions are formed, producing layer of ions that reflect radio waves.
The surgical of part of the iris of the eye.
A brittle silver-white metallic chemical element that forms hard corrosion-resistant alloys used in pen nibs, jewelry, watch and compass pivot bearings, surgical instruments, electrical contacts, and chemical crucibles.
A technique in alternative medicine by which diagnosis of various bodily disorders is claimed to be possible by examination of the fine structure of the iris of the eye.
The colored part of the eye that consists of a muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil and regulating the light entering the eye by expanding and contracting the pupil.
A heavy magnetic malleable ductile lustrous silvery-white metallic element used for a variety of engineering and structural products.
To bring a supply of water to a dry area, especially in order to help crops to grow.
An inadequate supply of blood to a part of the body, caused by partial or total blockage of an artery.
The lowest of the three major bones that constitute each half of the pelvis.
Islets of Langerhans
Irregular clusters of endocrine cells scattered throughout the tissue of the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon.
Lines on a weather map connecting points of equal but different structures.
A colorless gaseous hydrocarbon that is an isomer of butane is used especially as a fuel and refrigerant.
Any of the chemically distinct forms of an enzyme that perform the same biochemical function.
Compound having the same molecular formula but different structures.
A condition seen in certain algae in which the alternating generations of the life cycle are morphologically identical.
The equilibrium of the Earth's crust, a condition in which the forces tending to elevate balance those tending to depress.
A line on a map joining places that records the same temperature.
Pertaining to solutions characterized by equal osmotic pressure.
One of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different number of neutrons.
Having physical properties that do not vary with direction.
Abbreviation for intravenous; an intravenous device for delivering electrolyte solutions, medicines, and nutrients at an adjustable rate.