-1886 -a supreme court case that ruled that individual states did not have the right to regulate interstate commerce -led to the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 and the Interstate Commerce Commission
Interstate Commerce Act
-established the federal government's right to oversee railroad activities -required railroads to public their rate schedules and file them with the government
-one of the most powerful movements of political protest in American history -led by farmers in 1890's -favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other large industries
-22nd and 24th democratic reform President of the United States (1837-1908) -aka "veto governor" -had conservative policies -had illegitimate child -did not support protective tariffs, but wanted to reduce the tariff rates because DEMOCRAT -his presidency marked the beginning of the tariff question in election of 1888
tax on imported goods in order to protect domestic products (or products produced in their home) -intent was to get ppl to guy home products instead of imported ones -supported by Republicans, but not by Democrats
Sherman Antitrust Act
-1890 -law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States -signed by Benjamin Harrison and used later by Theodore Roosevelt -virtually had no impact
-1890 -the highest protective (tariff) measure ever proposed to Congress signed by Repres. William McKinley and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich -led to the fall of the Republicans
-23rd President -Republican -poor leader -supported protective tariffs and introduced the McKinley Tariff -increased federal spending to a billion dollars -reason for downfall of the Republicans
-full name: the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry -1860's - first major farm organization -founded by Oliver H. Kelley who left the gov. when he saw the isolation and drabness of rural farm life -not founded for means of protest but instead brought farmers together for community feeling -desired for the monopolistic railroads to go under gov. control -pressured state legislatures to regulate businesses on which farmers depended -made efforts for enterprises like the Montgomery Ward and Co. but they all failed bcuz of the opposition from monopolies!
-groups of farmers in agrarian protest -principally concerned with local problems -formed cooperatives and marketing mechanisms such as stores, banks etc. to free them from dependence on the merchants -tried to resist oppressive outside forces with a sense of neighborhood/comradory -alliances notable for role of women
"raise less corn and more hell" -fiery Populist orator who gave many lectures, denouncing the money-grubbing government (banks, railroads, and "middlemen") and encouraged farmers to speak their discontent with the economic situation.
-aka Populists -3rd political party created by farmers' organizations (Grange, other alliances) -demonstrated their power in the election of 1892 with Populist president candidate James B Weaver of Iowa -consisted mostly of farmers who were engaged in type of farming being oppressed by new, mechanized commercial agriculture -believed people should influence the political process -ended upon "fusion" with the Democratic party in the campaign of William Jennings Bryan
Crime of '73
-ended minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard -considered a conspiracy by big bankers when Congress stopped the coinage of the silver dollar against the will of the farmers and westerners who wanted unlimited coinage of silver.
"free and unlimited coinage of silver" -became to them a symbol of liberation -they saw silver as the "people's money" and gold as the money of oppression -Major goal of the Populist Party; they did not want just a money system based upon gold. -believed to be able to relieve working conditions and exploitation of labor (wanted to increase in the quantity of money)
"Cross of Gold" Speech
-given by William Jennings Bryan -given at the Democratic convention of 1896 -became one of the most famous political speeches in American history in support of free silver
-1900 -act enacted by the Republicans which confirmed the nation's commitment to the gold standard by assigning a specific gold value to the dollar -required all currency issued by the U.S. to hew to that value REP = gold(conservative) DEM = silver
-leader of the Stalwarts (faction of the Republican party) -Stalwarts favored traditional, professional machine politics
James G. Blaine
-leader of the Half-Breeds (faction of the Republican party) -Half Breeds favored reform -each faction competing for control of the party threatening to split it
-Republican who was the cause of the split of the Republican party into Stalwarts and Halfbreeds -after him. still managed to keep Republican as president; the 2 factions agreed on James Garfield (Half-Breed - assassinated after trying to defy Stalwarts in his appointments) and Chester Arthur (Stalwart - when president tried to reform! even though Stalwart)
-the 1st civil service measure that required some federal jobs be filled by taking written examinations rather than by patronage
Election of 1884
-James G. Blaine (Republican Half-Breed faction) VS. Grover Cleveland -the reason for Cleveland's tight victory was from a religious controversy shortly before -Catholics were offended by James. G Blaine so voted for Cleveland resulting in his VICTORY!
-enacted during Grover Cleveland's 2nd term reelected (president with Harrison in between his 2 terms) -reduced tariffs with very modest reductions (not very much)
Oliver H. Kelley
-founded the Grange -was appalled by the isolation and drabness of rural life he left the government
-issued at the national convention of Farmer Alliances in Oscala, Florida
-the only southern congressman elected in 1890 to openly identify with the Alliance -elected to the U.S congress, became known as a champion of Georgia's farmers
-Populist presidential candidate of the People's Party who ran in the election of 1892 but Cleveland won
-supported system of "subtreasuries" that would replace and strengthen the cooperatives -desired network of warehouses where farmers could deposit their crops -called for abolition of national banks because they believed they were dangerous -direct election of U.S. senators -wanted regulation and gov ownership of railroads -graduated income tax -REJECTED LAISSEZ FAIRE
Panic of 1893
-most severe depression nation ever experienced -began due to bankruptcy of 2 railroad companies which caused a collapse of the stock market -then wave of bank failures began -Panic showed how dependent the economy was on railroads
-began with Jacob S. Coxey (Populist) who began advocating a massive public works program to create jobs for the unemployed and an inflation of the currency -his proposals were ignored by Congress -in response the Coxey's Army marched to Washington to present their demands -police arrested them
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeat Democrat William Jennings Bryan in a campaign considered by historians to be one of the most dramatic in American history.