APUSH Ch. 30

Richard Nixon
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1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
Believed in anti-materalism, free use of drugs, they had a casual attitude toward sex and anti-conformity, (1960s) practiced free love and took drugs, flocked to San Francisco- low rent/interracial, they lived in communal "crash pads", smoked marijuana and took LSD, sexual revolution, new counter culture, Protestors who influenced US involvement in Vietnam
Alcatraz takeover1969. "Indians of all tribes" maked a "proclamation the the great white father". Called attention to the fact that many treaty rights (such as Ft. Laramie, 1868) had been ignored. Initiated militant activism and generated large amounts of media attention.Wounded Knee200 Oglala Lakota and followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM) seized and occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.Cesar ChavezNon-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike against fruit and vegetable growers. Unionized Mexican-American farm workers.Stonewall Inn RiotA series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969 and the Stonewall Inn in New York City. Frequently cited as the first instance in American history when people in the homosexual community fought back against a government sponsored system that persecuted sexual minorities. Became the defining event that sparked the gay rights movements.Betty Friedan1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".The Feminine Mystiquewritten by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacitiesKate Milletauthor of Sexual Politics (1969), a book that energized the more radical elements in the women's liberation movement with its confrontational messages about the male-dominated power structure in American society.NOWNational Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discriminationERA...Roe v. Wadeestablished national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines; no state interference in 1st; state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd; state may regulate to protect health or unborn child in 3rd. inferred from right of privacy established in griswald v. connecticutTitle IXA United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."Phyllis Schalflya leader of the conservative movement againts the equal rights amendment, she spoke out against the forces of feminism that emerged in the 1970sRachel Carson"Silent Spring", sparked a real environmentalist movement: which introduced the adverse environmental effects of DDT and the fact that it would kill the enviornment and there would be no birds to sing.- a silent springSilent SpringA book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.OSHAOccupational Safety and Health Administration, a government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environmentClean Air Act(RN), 1970 reaction to Rachel Carson in her 1962 in Silent Spring, It describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of smog and air pollution in general. The legislation forced the country to enforce clean air standards to improve health and showed that American was moving towards certain environmentalist measures.Earth DayA holiday conceived of by environmental activist and Senator Gaylord Nelson to encourage support for and increase awareness of environmental concerns; first celebrated on March 22, 1970EPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency; responsible for managing federal efforts to control air and water pollution, radiation and pesticide hazards, environmental research, hazardous waste, and solid-solid waste disposal.VietnamizationA war policy in Vietnam initiated by Nixon in June of 1969. This strategy called for dramatic reduction of U.S. troops followed by an increased injection of S. Vietnamese troops in their place. A considerable success, this plan allowed for a drop in troops to 24,000 by 1972. . This policy became the cornerstone of the so-called "Nixon Doctrine". As applied to Vietnam, it was labeled "Vietnamization".Henry KissingerAwarded 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end Vietnam War and withdrawing American forces. Heavily involved in South American politics as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State. Condoned covert tactics to prevent communism and facism from spreading throughout South America.Kent StateOhio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 riflesPentagon PapersA 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.Daniel EllsbergHe was a former employee of the Defense Department and gave the New York Times the "Pentagon Paper" which was information on how the US government got involved in Vietnam. Very embarrassing to the government.My Lai Massacre1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.Paris Accords1973 treaties that settle the terms for a U.S. withdrawal from Indochina, ending the war between the U.S. and North Vietnam. Left the North V. South Vietnam conflict unresolved.Fall of SaigonLate in April 1975, communist forces marched into Saigon, shortly after officials of the Thieu regime and the staff of the American embassy had fled the country in humiliating disarray. The forces quickly occupied the capital, renamed it Ho Chi Minh City and began he process of uniting Vietnam under Hanoi.War Powers Act1973. A resolution of Congress that stated the President can only send troops into action abroad by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack or serious threat.DétenteA lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.SALT ITreaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.Nixon DoctrineDuring the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.Augusto PinochetChilean militar leader who in a coup deposed Salvador Allende - communist, elected leader - created one party rule dictatorship - ruled w/ iron fist - human rights abusesSix Day War(1967) Short conflict between Egypt and her allies against Israel won by Israel; Israel took over the Golan Heights , The West Bank of the Jordan River; and the Sanai Peninsula.Oil EmbargoEconomic crisis of 1973 that occurred when OPEC nations refused to export oil to Western nations. Ensuing economic crisis plagued Gerald Ford's time in office.Warren Courtthe chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activismMiranda v. ArizonaSupreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.Gideon v. Wainwrighta landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.Bakke v. Board of Regents of CAUS court case in which Bakke was denied to University of California Medical School twice to people less qualified based on race. Case determined that affirmative action is legal as long as filling quotas is not used.Philadelphia Planrequired construction-trade unions working on the federal pay roll to establish "goals and timetables" for black employees. This plan changed the definition of "affirmative action" to include preferable treatment on groups, not individualsGeorge McGovernA Senator from South Dakota who ran for President in 1972 on the Democrat ticket. His promise was to pull the remaining American troops out of Vietnam in ninety days which earned him the support of the Anti-war party, and the working-class supported him, also. He lost however to Nixon.OPECAn international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. Represents the majority of all oil produced in the world. Attempts to limit production to raise prices. It's long name is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.'stagflation'a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)Watergate1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped downUS v. NixonThe Supreme Court does have the final voice in determining constitutional questions; no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law; and the president cannot use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence that is 'demonstrably relevant in a criminal trialBarry Goldwater1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in historyJohn Birch SocietyRight-wing group named for an American missionary to China who had been executed by Communist troops. They opposed the liberal tendencies of the Great Society programs, and attempted to impeach Earl Warren for his liberal, "Communist" actions in the Supreme Court.