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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Steele 1919-1941 prosperity and depression
Terms in this set (83)
production of goods in large numbers through the use of machinery and assembly lines. the efficient production of large numbers of identical goods. Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply.
a series of workers and machines in a factory by which a succession of identical items is progressively assembled. In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product. Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks.
method of purchase in which buyer makes a small down payment and then pays off the rest of the debt in regular monthly payments. A consumers buys products by promising to pay small, regular amounts over a period of time. buying on credit.
A period of increased stock trading and rising stock prices. a period of rising stock prices. a steady rise in the stock market over a period of time.
Buy on Margin
paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest. Practice of buying stocks by paying 10 to 50 percent of the full price and borrowing the rest; common practice in the 1920s before the stock market crash of 1929. The act of borrowing money to buy stock. The money was usually paid back from the profits of the stock.
automobile manufactured by Henry Ford to be affordable on the mass market. first affordable car built by Henry Ford; sturdy, reliable, inexpensive, only came in black. A cheap and simple car designed by Ford. It allowed for more Americans to own a car.
Teapot Dome Scandal
A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921. corruption by a Harding cabinet member, who took bribes to allow oil drilling on public lands. Scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money.
an outlying district of a city, especially a residential one. residential areas surrounding a city. Residential areas surrounding a city. Shops and businesses moved to suburbia as well as people.
Washington Naval Disarmament Conference
meeting held in 1921 and 1922 in which nations agreed to limit construction of large warships. meeting in which nations agreed to limit construction of large warships. meeting held in 1921 and 1922 where world leaders agreed to limit construction of warships.
1928. 1928 agreement in which many nations agreed to outlaw war. Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another.
Installment plan for Germany, a way to help them pay reparations. 1924. A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
artistic and literary movement sparked by a break with past conventions. practices typical of contemporary life or thought. A cultural movement embracing human empowerment and rejecting traditionalism as outdated. Rationality, industry, and technology were cornerstones of progress and human achievement.
a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school. 1925 trial of a Tennessee schoolteacher for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution. 1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools.
arrangement that limited the number of immigrants who could enter the United States from specific countries. A system that sets limits on how many immigrants from various countries a nation will admit each year. An arrangement placing a limit on the number of immigrants from each country.
A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages. A total ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol. the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment.
Prohibition. Prohibition of alcohol. Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages.
one who sells illegal alcohol. Smugglers of illegal alcohol during the Prohibition era. someone who makes or sells illegal liquor.
a form of a religion, especially Islam or Protestant Christianity, that upholds belief in the strict, literal interpretation of scripture. Conservative beliefs in the Bible and that it should be literally believed and applied. Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas. fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life. A period of general fear of communists.
Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans. A black interest group active primarily in the courts. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States. law enacted by Congress to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment. The Act specified that "no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act." It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors.
The Jazz Singer
first movie with sound. the first movie with sound synchronized to the action. 1927 - The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.
carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom. a fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting conventional standards of behavior. Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion.
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe. A group of American writers that rebelled against America's lack of cosmopolitan culture in the early 20th century. Many moved to cultural centers such as London in Paris in search for literary freedom. Prominent writers included T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Ernest Hemingway among others. Americans who became disillusioned with society after World War I.
free time. time free from work or duties. Time that you can spend however you choose.
Black literary and artistic movement centered in Harlem that lasted from the 1920s into the early 1930s that both celebrated and lamented black life in America; Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston were two famous writers of this movement. A literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture. A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished.
common culture experienced by a large number of people. leisure and cultural activities shared by many people. The production of works of art and entertainment designed to appeal to a large audience.
A name given to October 29, 1929, when stock prices fell sharply. October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929. October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
(HH) , starting with collapse of the US stock market in 1929, period of worldwide economic stagnation and depression. Heavy borrowing by European nations from USA during WW1 contributed to instability in European economies. Sharp declines in income and production as buying and selling slowed down. Widespread unemployment, countries raised tariffs to protect their industries. America stopped investing in Europe. Lead to loss of confidence that economies were self adjusting, HH was blamed for it. A time of utter economic disaster; started in the United States in 1929. the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s.
Buying on Credit
people would purchase things and make partial payments on set intervals: installment plans, led to a lot of debt. People bought with credit and paid later. Many went into debt. "Possess today and pay tomorrow". installment buying.
the forming of a theory or conjecture without firm evidence. the practice of making high-risk investments with borrowed money in hopes of getting a big return. An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
a system for buying and selling stocks in corporations. A general term used to describe all transactions involving the buying and selling of stock shares issued by a company. A system for buying and selling shares of companies.
the central banking system of the United States. the central bank of the US. the central bank of the United States.
line of people waiting for food handouts from charities or public agencies. a line of people waiting for free food. lines of people waiting to receive food provided by charitable organizations or public agencies.
a shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s. term used to describe makeshift shantytowns set up by homeless people during the Great Depression. Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress.
Farmer who works land owned by another and pays rent either in cash or crops. a farmer who works land owned by someone else and pays rent in cash or as a share of the crop. a person who farms rented land.
A drought in the 1930s that turned the Great Planes very dry. Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages. A nickname for the Great Plains regions hit by drought and dust storms in the early 1930s.
Dust Bowl refugees. Displaced farm families from the Oklahoma dust bowl who migrated to California during the 1930s in search of jobs. the farmers, who in the Great Depression, were forced to move, many moved to Oklahoma.
the act of returning to the country of origin. process by which Mexican Americans were encouraged, or forced, by local, state, and federal officials to return to Mexico during the 1930s. A refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or a non-governmental organization.
a raw material or primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold, such as copper or coffee. anything bought or sold. anything that is bought and sold; article of trade or commerce.
a vast prairie region extending from Alberta and Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada south through the west central United States into Texas. vast grassland between the mississippi river and the Rocky Mountains. A mostly flat and grassy region of western North America.
Trickle Down Economics
govt gives tax breaks to company owners, who in turn give workers larger wages; INEFFECTIVE. Hoover's strategy battling the Great Depression in which the money is given to the big corporations and eventually they will pay their workers more, and then the workers will spend their money and save the economy. economic theory that holds that money lent to banks and businesses will trickle down to consumers.
huge public works project on the Colorado River that provided jobs, water for irrigation, and power. Dam on the Colorado River that was built during the Great Depression. A dam built in the 1930s, with funding from the federal government, to control the Colorado River.
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash. WWI veterans who marched on Washington demanding their $1,000 bonus pay before the 1945 due date. 1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented. The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression. A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
Tennessee Valley Authority. (Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area. The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression.
Catechism of the Catholic Church. Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc. Civilian Conservation Corps.
Public Works Administration. Public Works Administration. Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc. (Public Works Administration) Relief and Recovery. Harold Ikes was in charge. It was a longterm and industrial recovery and an unemployment relief.
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people. informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people. informal radio broadcast in which FDR explained issues and New Deal programs to average Americans. radio speech given by Franklin D. Roosevelt while in office.
First Hundred Days
This is the term applied to President Roosevelt's first three months in taking office. During this time, FDR had managed to get Congress to pass an unprecedented amount of new legislation that would revolutionize the role of the federal government from that point on. This era saw the passage of bills aimed at repairing the banking system and restoring American's faith in the economy, starting government works projects to employ those out of work, offering subsidies for farmers, and devising a plan to aid in the recovery of the nation's industrial sector. FDR pushes through 15 new laws and ends banking crisis. This term refers to March 4 to June 16, 1933. During this period of dramatic legislative productivity, FDR laid out the programs that constituted the New Deal. Today, presidents are often measured by their actions in the same period of time.
Second New Deal
A new set of programs and reforms launched by FDR in 1935. (1935) a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs. a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs; also known as the Second Hundred Days.
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health. created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for retired people. (FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health.
FDR plan to add up to six new justices to the nine-member Supreme Court after the Court had ruled that some New Deal legislation was unconstitutional. Attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed. Where FDR tried to add more members to the Supreme Court to pass his programs.
A system in which the government takes responsibility for its citizen's social and economic needs. a state that assumes primary responsibility for the social welfare of its citizens. A government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
Wizard of Oz
A 1939 movie that was an instant hit during the Depression because it allowed people to forget their troubles and focus on musicals and the characters in an entirely different world. Book by L. Frank Baum that used symbolism to satire the politics of the day every character in the book represented some form of people in society discussed the gold standard became a best seller. popular depression-era film that promised dreams really can come true.
War of the Worlds
H.G. Wells. 1938 was a story on the radio directed by Orson Welles, it was so realistic people thought that aliens were actually invading. 1938 radio drama that was so realistic many people feared that Martians were actually invading.
assembly line. United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947). 1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Secretary of Treasury. the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics. (Hamiltonian economics). Secretary of Treasury under President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, who instituted a Republican policy of reduced government spending, lower taxes to the wealthy and higher tariffs.
31st President of the United States. Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community. (1929-1933) The New York Stock Market Crashes October 29, 1929 "Black Tuesday". The 20th Amendment is passed and added and the 21st Amendment is passed by 1933.
(1923-1925) and (1925-1929), taciturn; small gov't conservative; laissez faire ideology; in favor of immigration restriction (Immigration Act); reduced the tax burden; the Bonus Bill was passed over his veto; Revenue Act of 1924; Kellogg-Briand Pact. 1923-1929. Became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
Warren G. Harding
1921-1923. Pres.1921 laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "return to normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Ex) Sec. of Interior leased gov't land w/ oil for $500,000 and took money himself. Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over. president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI.
Harding's "advisors" who played poker, drank, and smoked with him in the White House. a group of close friends and political supporters whom President Warren G. Harding appointed to his cabinet. A group of poker-playing, men that were friends of President Warren Harding. Harding appointed them to offices and they used their power to gain money for themselves. They were involved in scandals that ruined Harding's reputation even though he wasn't involved.
defense attorney in the Scopes Trial. Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools. A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when Darrow questioned Bryan about the Bible.
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American. White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties. A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
U.S. citizens who opposed immigration because they were suspicious of immigrants and feared losing jobs to them. People who wanted to preserve the country for white, American-born Protestants. Americans who feared that immigrants would take jobs and impose their Roman Catholic beliefs on society.
popular silent film star. English comedian and film maker. A "silent comedian," this movie star continued to lengthen the silent film style and offer an alternative to the sound film with his trademark tattered suit, derby hat, and cane, playing the "little tramp" who made audiences laugh with his silent jokes.
"Home Run King" in baseball, provided an idol for young people and a figurehead for America. He was a famous baseball player who played for the Yankees. He helped developed a rising popularity for professional sports. United States professional baseball player famous for hitting home runs (1895-1948).
made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. American pilot who made the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean. United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974).
Works in neuropsychology.
Works in hysteria and sexuality.
Key Words: Dream Studies
Neurosis comes from distressing experiences.
Studies of Hysteria: (ways to get rid of neurotic conditions)
F. Scott Fitzgerald
wrote The Great Gatsby. a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl. The Great Gatsby.
Hills Like White Elephants. an American writer of fiction who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954 (1899-1961). Lost Generation writer, spent much of his life in France, Spain, and Cuba during WWI, notable works include A Farewell to Arms.
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927. Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business. African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community. (1929-1933) The New York Stock Market Crashes October 29, 1929 "Black Tuesday". The 20th Amendment is passed and added and the 21st Amendment is passed by 1933. 31st President of the United States.
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II. (1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman. American general, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II.
This man was well known for making the Harlem Renaissance famous because of his poems. A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People". African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the United States during most of the Depression and most of World War II. 32nd US President - He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWII. President of the US during Great Depression and World War II.
Blues singer. Empress of the Blues. African American blues singer who played and important role in the Harlem Reniassance.
a social reformer who combined her deep humanitarian impulses with great political skills. wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962). FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women.
hired to photograph ordinary Americans experiencing the depression. American photographer who recorded the Great Depression by taking pictures of the unemployed and rural poor. A famous photographer who wanted to be one at a young age, and, when the Depression started, landed a job to photograph the Dust Bowl, which have been recognized as showing the desperation and bravery during this time. She didn't stop documenting the suffering of people until her 1965 death, but her 1930s pictures are the most well-known.
trumpet player who influenced the development of jazz. United States jazz trumpeter and bandleader (1900-1971). Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
Political leader from Louisiana who criticized the New Deal. "Kingfish" Rep. senator of LA; pushed "Share Our Wealth" program and make "Every Man a King' at the expense of the wealthy; assassinated. As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc.
wrote Grapes of Wrath. The Grapes of Wrath. American novelist who wrote "The Grapes of Wrath". (1939) A story of Dustbowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life.
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