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marine bio exam 4
Terms in this set (234)
know entire BOTH map and be able to place on map
are usually smaller bodies of open marine water not considered to be apart of the main 4 oceans
A gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent
exceeds inward over the continental mass
not productive part of ocean
Example: east coast of US
a large, flat, almost level area of the deep-ocean basin
after the continental rise
anything deeper than abyssal plain is associated with trench. Know as the _________ environment
a steep incline of the ocean floor leading down from the edge of the continental shelf
the gently sloping surface at the base of the continental slope
accumulation of sediment
Deep linear depression in the ocean floor where subduction is taking place.
the peak of a volcano that breaks the ocean surface
submerged volcanic structures
know table 2.2
The location of the deepest trench on earth made from two oceanic crusts converging.
The world ocean is the predominant feature on the Earth in total area.
In the Northern Hemisphere, _____ of the total area is ocean.
In the Southern Hemisphere, about ______ of the total area is ocean.
The world ocean is divided into four large basins: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Arctic
The Earth is thought to have originated 4.5 billion years ago from dust accumulated from the Big Bang
Due to heat associated with these events, the early Earth was likely _______
This allowed materials to settle by density as the materials cooled
Why is oceanic crust younger than continental crust?
oceanic crust is constantly recycled and continental crust has been around since the beginning
Heavier materials settled deep in the Earth
Lighter components formed a thin crust
Eventually, the Earth's oceans and atmosphere began to form
Earth's location relative to the sun allows for water to stay ________- an essential element to sustain life
innermost layer; solid inner core and liquid outer core; iron-rich
middle layer; semi-plastic composition
outermost layer; thinnest portion of the Earth
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
the upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur
vast majority of core
we dont care much about the core
we care about the mantle because what happens in the mantle surfaces on the crust and affects us
made up of dark-colored mineral, basalt; denser than continental crust; younger than continental crust (less than 200 million years old).
light-colored granite construction mainly; less dense; some crust as old as 3.8 billion years old.
proposed in 1912 by alfred Wegner
suggested that all continents had been joined in a single supercontinent which he named Pangaea
Alfred Wegner proposed that ______ began breaking up 180 million years ago
At the time, his proposal was not widely accepted by he could not explain HOW this occurred
explains the HOW behind Wegner's continental drift theory
german, travelled the world, focused on greenland, was one of the first to determine that the rocks were extremely old
realized that continental mass weren't always where they are
The main features of plate tectonics are:
The Earth's surface is covered by a series of crustal plates
The ocean floors are constantly moving; spreading in the center and sinking at the edges and being regenerated.
Convection currents beneath the plates assist movement
Heat from the mantle drives these currents
rise from ocean floor
a chain of submarine volcanic mountains
at regular intervals, the ridge is displaced by faults in the Earth's crust called transform faults
Very little sediment is located at the bottom near these ridges; sediment gets thicker away from the ridges signifying that the crust further from the ridge is older (sediment has had time to accumulate)
purchased WW tanks to drive over the arctic conditions in greenland
all tanks broke down, went on walk/dog sled to the base of a glacier, while they were there a storm set in and turned back to the camp, the weather got so bad they had to stop and tried to wait out the storm, very heavy smoker, more than likely had a heart attack, and he died, friend was never found
subsequent to this, comes WW2 and technology is developed and confirmed some of his original observations
seafloor spreading and continental drift are combined to build a model for Wegner's idea of continental drift
seafloor spreading as tectonic plates move apart. the seafloor moves and carries the continent with it
continental drift vs plate tectonics
continental drift is explained by plate tectonics
**continental drift was original proposition by Wegner, plate tectonics was then derived to explain continental drift
San Andres fault
the fault between the North American and Pacific plates that causes major earthquakes in CA
pacific ring of fire
Ocean-girdling zone of crustal instability, volcanism, and earthquakes resulting from the tectonic activity along plate boundaries in the region.
rock found in africa and south america, concluded they were the same continent and then separated (not 100% sure its Guiana)
not a true ocean, more of a nautical term for sailors, body of water that surrounds anartica, continuous body of water that meets at basin of atlantic, pacific, and indian ocean
not surrounded by continental mass, this ocean actually surrounds a continental mass
body of oceanic water surrounded by continental mass
5 ocean basins
Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, Southern
Ridge Push Hypothesis
what's forcing the continents apart is the fact that magnum is rising and physically pushing the two continents apart
Occasionally, at random intervals, the Earth's Magnetic field reverses. New rock formed from magma records the orientation of Earth's magnetics field at the time the magna cools.
Studies of the sea floor revealed "________" of alternating magnetization parallel to the mid-oceanic ridges. This is evidence for continuous formation of new rock at these ridges. As new rock forms, older rock is pushed farther away from the ridge, producing patterns in the rock.
South pole -
North pole -
blue - basalt rock formed at south pole
gray - magnetic pattern is opposite, so the rock was formed at the north pole
Where is the location of the youngest oceanic crust, according to ocean drilling data
on slide with picture
normal = north
reversed = south
Chains of islands are found throughout the oceans, especially in the western pacific
These "_________" are usually situated along deep sea trenches on the continental side of trenches
These observations, ...
basalt to the left is older because it pushes away from shore
where would you go to find the oldest basalt on the map?
where all blue lines are, in the groove of north america and australia (approx 200 million years)
baslat material that is the farthest away from an oceanic ridge
the older and colder the basalt is the more dense and heavier than younger basalt, so it lies under the younger basalt
Movement of lithospheric plates was long thought to be driven by large-scale convection currents in the asthenosphere and lower mantle, driven in turn by heat from the Earth's core
However, mantle convection turns out to be much more complex, and the prevailing hypothesis today is that the plates move mainly because of ________
Old, cold, and dense lithosphere sinks into the mantle and pulls the rest of the plate behind it
slab pull hypothesis
super continent mainly focused on
super single world ocean surrounding pangaea
separated Eurasia from africa
About 180 million years ago, a rift began to form between North American and the combined
finish slides in between
As the Atlantic Ocean grew, ....
because the pacific ocean is shrinking and atlantic ocean is growing, who is going to hit who first
california and japan
The margins of continents are boundaries ...
finish slides up to types of margin
relatively inactive geologically
Characterized by flat, wide coastal plains, wide continental shelves, and gradually sloping continental slopes
sites of more intense geologic activity including earthquakes, volcanoes and trenches
Characterized by steep, rocky shorelines,
Ex: West Coast of US
derived from the break-down of rocks (weathering)
derived from the skeletons and shells of marine organisms
(composed of microfossils) can reveal information from the past
Age of these sediments can be determined using ________
Ocean temperature at the time the microfossils (testes) were formed can be determined by looking at the ratios of ________ to ________ or by different ratios of oxygen isotopes
2 main classifications for marine sediments
are derived derived from land and found near shore.
They are normally delivered by rivers to coastal regions.
settle slowly out of the water column and are deposited all over the ocean.
are deposited at such low rates that they tend to be overwhelmed near shore by terrigenous deposits from land.
are normally associated with deep sea regions.
__________ are normally classified by their size.
Sediment grain size commonly depends on the energy of the depositional environment, with more energy leading to larger grain sizes.
So, a steep mountain stream, where water flows quickly downhill, might have very large grain sizes, from gravel to pebbles to cobbles or even boulders.
A river bed, where currents have slowed, might be filled with sand or silt.
Beaches, where waves crash against the shore and the surf runs in and out, often have sand-sized particles as well.
Farther offshore, where the water is less active, terrigenous materials will be smaller silt or clay size particles.
What is the grain size scale called?
Wentworth grain size
**sometimes terrigenous sediment is further classified by composition
are classified by composition, not size
the size is uniformly pretty small, so their widely varying compositions are more interesting
4 classification groups for marine sediments
sediment that is derived from rock. Remember, it's pelagic, so it has to settle out of the water column and will be most prevalent far from land.
So, it can be
(this is called eolian sediment), volcanic ash, or other fine particles that were originally rocks.
dominates in deep areas such as the Pacific Ocean away from the East Pacific Rise.
lithogenous pelagic classifications
is derived from living organisms, normally planktonic organisms because they're the most abundant.
Planktonic life comes in a variety of forms and species, but the kinds that form biogenous sediment are the kinds that have shells that are resistant to dissolution or destruction.
The most common shell materials for plankton are ________(CaCO3 or calcium carbonate) and ______ (SiO2 or silica), and most biogenic marine sediment comes from four species as shown here:
Know graph on slide 56 on sea floor (species names)
tend to be found near polar regions and along the equator.
siliceous organisms (diatoms and radiolaria)
tend to be found in shallower water in temperate and tropical regions.
Calcareous organisms (coccoliths and foraminifera)
dissolves at great depths, so deep ocean basins won't have any calcareous sediments.
used to determine Earth's climate over the past half a million years.
on graph on slide 57 (sea floor)
is average sea surface temperature determined from the Mg-Ca ratio in the microfossils.
on graph on slide 57 (sea floor)
indicate major glacial/interglacial periods, recorded in oxygen isotope ratios
In water, bigger heavier particles sink faster than smaller lighter ones. Because planktonic organisms are so small, it seems like they should take a long time to sink and might get dispersed by currents, hitting the bottom far from where they originally lived. However, species on the ocean floor tend to represent the species in the surface water very well, so this kind of dispersal doesn't happen. Why?
Because of the _______________. When big organisms eat plankton, they can't digest the shells. The shells are excreted in fecal pellets which sink rapidly to the ocean floor and then break down.
fecal pellet express
hot spots occur as plates move, and volcano moves as the crust moves, and the when tectonic plates start to move again they form another volcano
Ex: hawaiian volcanoes
This particular hot spot has remained situated in the same spot. Something is happening in the mantle that keeps it stationary
2 major hypotheses:
2. didn't say
**hypthesize that magnetic polarity of the earth is driving these
volcano that remains stationary, in yellow stone
example of submerging hot spots
**where volcanic activity remains under the surface
multicellular protista (large plant like, classified as algae but are multicellular)
review graph on slide 4 of marine macrophytes
green because chlorophyll is not masked by other pigments
Ulva (sea lettuce)
Sodium fragile (Dead mans fingers)
the chloroplasts of this plant remain alive and functioning in the herbivorous sea slugs which feed on them
brown because of the yellow brown pigment FUCOXANTHIN
Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp)
*gas filled bladders, hold fasts to anchor them
*literally an ecological forest
west coast brown algae
pelagic brown algae in the genus
Sargassum (also known as sargassum weed)
The berry-like structures are gas-filled bladders known as
, which provide buoyancy to the plant.
**not anchored, float near surface, refugia
**fish and invertebrates love this stuff
red because of the presence of PHYCOBILINS, which mask the limited amounts of chlorophyll they contain
**MOST DIVERSE group
the absorption spectra, they use blue and green light to photosynthesize, so you find they in deeper zones because blue and greens penetrate the deepest
why they aren't familiar to commoners
example of rhodophyta
deposit calcium carbonate in their cell walls and the remains can be a major constituent of coralline substrate in tropical environments
carallina (a coralline algae)
live on a calcium carbonate skeleton, build a skeleton and then a living tissue resides on the surface of the skeleton
infrastructure is white
Economic importance of seaweeds
READ: page 111
turtle grass (Thalassia)
flowering plants (seagrasses)
salt tolerant can be completely submerged
Salt, Marsh ecotone
fish that migrate from freshwater to the ocean to spawn
fish that migrate from the ocean to freshwater to spawn
salt tolerant, but can not be completely submerged
tends to be down estuaries
seaturtles feed on it (euryhaline, can tolerate lower psu than open ocean)
Locations in which species have persisted while becoming extinct elsewhere.
cord grass, found in estuaries in temperate regions
found in estuaries in tropical regions
bulb at top helps plant to float
4 types of marine reptiles exist today
Turtle Excluder Device
TED devices designed to release turtles, large fish, and mammals caught in shrimp trawling nets required my the Endangered Species Act.
all species of sea turtles are threatened or endangered
endangered means that a species is under direct threat of species survival (extinction is a definite threat)
threatened means that the species may become endangered
Both designations give these species protection under the ___________
Endangered Species Act
some biologists recognize two species of green turtles, the Pacific green turtle and the Atlantic green turtle (this is the reason for the 7 or 8 species discrepancy)
green sea turtle
in 20th century, designated as the single most endangered species on the planet
kemps ridley sea turtle
**rebound population has been successful
Structurally, sea turtles have an upper shell known as the ________ and a lower shell known as the __________
The ribs are expanded in size and fused to their shell
All sea turtles have powerful jaws, but no teeth
Like other reptiles, sea turtles are ____________ and ___________- although the leatherback sea turtle is so large that its body temperature is normally several degrees above the ambient water temperature
closet sister group to turtles
breed at sea
Internal fertilization occurs - males use their long tails as well as the claws on the front flippers to "grip" the female during reproduction
Females can store sperm
One clutch (group) of eggs can have multiple paternity - males and females are not monogamous
why do sea turtles lay eggs on terrestrial land?
artifact of early terrestrially, they evolved from terrestrial animals
kemps ridley turtle
**leatherback is largest (shell does not have plates, not as hard as plated sea turtles
only vegetarian sea turtle
green sea turtle
least vulnerable of sea turtles (only threatened not endangered)
loggerhead sea turtle
are found only in the Indian and Pacific Ocean
have a laterally flattened body with a paddle-like tail for propulsion through the water
most species are 3-4 feet in length as adults
Sea snakes breed at sea and most species are ___________
A few species still return to land to lay eggs
Bites from sea snakes can be fatal for humans- the sea snakes are related to the cobra and have a powerful venom
Fortunately, sea snakes are not known to be aggressive
Sea snakes are carnivorous and mainly feed on fish
producing living young from eggs that hatch within the body
This species is found in Australia, the Indian Ocean and some Western Pacific Islands
It can be found in estuaries, mangrove swamps, rivers and the open ocean
It is a predatory species that eats all types of prey items including humans
is a large species reaching lengths of over 30 feet (although individuals over 20 feet are rare)
This species is not secretive like the American Crocodile, but is an aggressive hunter
live on the Galapagos Islands
While they are called marine, they only spend a portion of their time in the water
They dive to feed on seagrass near the shore
A large portion of their day is spent basking on the shore to warm up from their dives in the cold water surrounding the Galapagos
like mammals, are able to maintain a constant body temperature derived through metabolic means
The feathers that cover the body are coated with an oil from glandular secretions
This oil helps to waterproof the body
The hard shelled egg provides more protection than the leathery shell of reptiles
excrete salt through their eyes by blinking rapidly
flightless with the wing modified into a flipper-like structure
spend a great deal of time in the marine environment searching for prey
live mainly in Antarctica
layer of fat and trap air in feathers to help them survive these cold environments
males and females share parenting responsibilities
other seabirds are not adapted to the marine environment in the same way, even those that spend long periods of time at sea still have features very much like terrestrial birds
4600 marine mammal species
mostly viviparous with placenta
mammary and other glands
larger brain in relation to body size
many sexually dimorphic (males and females have different characteristics)
birds modified scaled into feathers
if you have feathers, you are a bird
if you have keratin hair, you are a mammal
a trait shared among all the descendants of a common ancestor who also had that trait
Major groups of marine mammals
Seal, sea lions, and walrus
sea otter and polar bear
dugong and manatees
whales, dolphins and porpoises
sea lions vs. seals
sea lions (external ear, can rotate rear limbs forward, mostly on terrestrial land)
seals (great swimmers, mostly in water)
love warmer waters
hawaiian and mediterranean are endangered
carribean ones have not been see since the 1950s
used to dig up mollusks in mud
tusks on walruses
**not very good on land, can pull back flippers up but still not good
wrap themselves in seaweed to float so they can sleep
eat sea urchins and shellfish
large, not fast swimmers, frequently are killed because of boats
only freshwater manatee
example of toothed whales
herd of ocras=pod
epipeaka : top part of diatom frustrual
hypotheka: terms in diatom reproduction
know diatom reproduction link
know picture with boxes
know picture w gray cycle
why is the reproduction way of the diatom adaptive?
generations would get smaller, good because less of them use silica and silica gets used up rather quickly
The resistant stage of diatoms that restores the maximum size characteristic to the species
when silica gets so low, they undergo sexual reproduction then asexual reproduction and produce auxospores
Sound waves are emitted as a series of clicks of varying frequencies
________ directs the outgoing sound waves
After the echo strikes an object, it is reflected back
These reflected echoes are received back by the melon and lower jaw
The longer it takes a echo to return, the farther away the object is located
Melon (of dolphin)
acoustic window (dolphin)
focuses and amplifies return echo
rapid breathing prior to dive
Lungs remove 90% of O2 from air (as opposed to 20% for humans)
Elastic tissue in lungs helps them expand the lungs temporarily during apneustic breathing
adaption for diving
Marine mammals have more blood than non-diving mammals for their size (means more hemoglobin to carry oxygen)
Muscles contain more myoglobin to hold oxygen in tissues
The heart rate slows dramatically during a dive - known as bradycardia
Blood flow is reduced to extremities and digestive system
Muscles employ anaerobic respiration as necessary (results in lactic acid build-up)
Marine mammals can tolerate more lactic acid than other mammals
Rib cage and lungs collapse during dive to force air into tissues and prevent decompression sickness
dolphin adaptations for diving
heart rate of dolphin slows dramatically during a dive
Freshwater teleosts are hyperosmotic to the surrounding solution, so they face osmotic gain of water and diffusional loss of NaCl across the permeable gill epithelium.
These potentially disruptive osmotic and ionic movements are compensated for by excretion of relatively large volumes of a dilute urine, and active uptake of NaCl across the gill epithelium.
Marine teleosts are hyposmotic to seawater, so they face osmotic loss of water and diffusional gain of NaCl across the gill.
Compensatory mechanisms include ingestion of seawater, intestinal absorption of NaCl and water, excretion of small volumes of blood-isotonic urine (after tubular reabsorption of Na, Cl, and water), and active secretion of NaCl across the gill epithelium.
mechanisms of osmoregulation by teleost fishes
**refer to last test
**skin or gills is the semi-permeable membrane
4 divisons of Chondrichthyes
Agnatha -- lampreys
Chondrichthyes --- chimaeras, sharks and rays
Actinopterygians --- Bichirs, Sturgeons, Paddlefishes, Gars, Bow fins, Teleosts
Sarcopterygians -- Coelacanth, Lung fishes, tetrapods
more than one species of fish
**more than one fish of same species = fish
lobbed fin fishes
4 limbs (all vertebrate tetrapods are descended from this common ancestor)
Marine fish are vertebrates
Some have vertebra made of cartilage, while others have bony vertebra
Of the 24,000 known species of fish, about 15,000 species are marine
Fish are the oldest of vertebrates (found farther back in the fossil record)
Fish are by far the largest group of vertebrates in terms of species and abundance
About half of all vertebrate species are fish
Osteichthyes (bony fish)
**did NOT involve from the cartligenous fish!
if bony fish evolved from sharks, than sharks would not be here
we evolved WITH the monkeys, but not from monkeys because they are still here
1. Lobe-finned fishes
2. Ray-finned fishes
These jawless fish have a muscular, circular mouth with rows of teeth in rings
Long, cylindrical body
Lack paired fins and scales seen in other fish
Two types of jawless fish exist- hagfish and lampreys
They feed on dead and dying fish and marine mammals primarily
Live in burrows in soft sediments
Produce large quantities of mucous from glands in the skin to protect them while feeding
still existing; not exterminated, destroyed, or lost
1. makes slimy
2. dont have teeth, so they clamp with vacuum pressure and tie body in knot which they can transfer up and down their body
3. predator avoidance (explode in fish and clogs up gills when eaten by fish)
Live in freshwater and salt water
Adults of some species spend a large portion of their life in the sea, but return to freshwater to breed; adults normally die after breeding.
Other species live in freshwater lakes
They feed on living fish by rasping into the sides of fish with their sucker-like mouth and consuming blood, tissue and body fluids.
Fishes in the _____________ and _____________- are considered to be more advanced.
General Characteristics (advancements) seen in these groups:
Highly efficient gills
Scales cover the body
A wide variety of jaw and feeding types
Lateral line and other sensory organs
scales that are not placoid
About 1000 species
Sharks, rays, skates and ratfishes are members of this group
Skeleton of cartilage (as the name implies)
Movable jaws with well-developed teeth
Placoid scales and paired fins
5-7 gill slits open directly into the water in most species
Spiracles in many species (openings on head used to bring water directly in for respiration without opening the mouth)
Males in most species have projections of the anal fin called claspers that are used in copulation
Primarily marine, but do travel up the mouths of rivers into freshwater in some species
The population numbers in many species of sharks are declining due to harvesting sharks for meat, oil, skin and fins
In addition to the lateral line, sharks have a sensory organ called the ___________; this organ is used to detect electrical currents when sharks are close to an object (the movement of muscles - even those used in respiration - emit a small electrical charge) - this allows sharks to detect living prey even it is hidden from their view if they can get within a few feet of the organism
Organ of Lorenzini
largest known cartilgous fish
producing living young from eggs that hatch within the body
eggs laid outside the body
some have live birth (known as vivipary); some lay egg cases (ovipary); while others have an internalized egg that hatches while still in the female before the young are expelled from the female's reproductive system (ovovivipary)
reproduction of sharks
interuternine neonatal cannibolism
first egg that hatches eat siblings to hatch
the spiny dogfish shark
includes basking shark, megamouth, and cookie-cutter sharks
fin spines present
anal fin absent
squalus (spiny dogfish)
the "Requiem" sharks
lee's favorite animal
poster child for sharks
skates and rays
difference between rays and skates
skates have a fleshy tail and no spine on the tail
skates always lay egg cases
ratfish, rabbitfish, spook fish, and ghost fish
**have interesting morphological similarities to placoderms
more species than all other vertebrates combined (23,000 species)
gills used for respiration
hinged jaws allow for a variety of different ways of feeding
homocercal tail (two lobes of equal size) provides forward thrust
Osteichthyes (bony fish)
review body shape slide
go to saltwater to breed
go to freshwater to breed
Characteristics of Actinistia
internal nares absent
numerous paired snout bones
vertebral column unossified
large tooth plates on palate, no marginal teeth
anterior of skull roof a mosaic of small bones tightly interconnected
internal nares and lungs present
south american lungfishes
make muscus cocoons in the dry seasons and break open when rains
modified portions of digestive systems (swim bladders)
**lungs are not derived gills, completely different
gill vs lung
gill is structure oxygen is obtained on outside
lung, gas exchange occurs on inside
reduced gills and will drown in water if not allowed to breathe air
has reduced lungs and will die out of water
lives in well oxygenated rivers
The study of how bones and other materials come to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils.
more fishlike than amphilibian like
more amphibian like than fishlike
evolution of dipoblasty
predominant life stage in scyphozoa
sea anemones and corals
adult stage is polyp stage
Batesian mimicry "fakey"
A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.
mullein mimicry "double nasty"
poisonous prey species all evolve bright warning colors
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