BJU Life Science, Chapter 13, 4th Edition
Terms in this set (48)
Eukaryotic animal that has a backbone or spinal column: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals.
An internal skeleton (inside body) found in vertebrates and usually made of cartilage and/or bone.
The connective tissue that forms part of the strong supporting structure of vertebrates.
A flexible supporting tissue that makes up part or all of some animals' skeletons (ex. human nose, ends of many bones, jawless and cartilage fish skeletons).
The balancing process by which organisms try to stay the same--correct temperature, regulate chemicals in blood, etc. Not being in balance can cause illness or death.
Able to maintain a constant body temperature by internal means; warm-blooded (mammals, people, and birds); these creatures have to eat lots of food to maintain their temperature; can do something to cool down or warm up from inside their bodies.
Not able to maintain a constant body temperature by internal means; cold-blooded (fish, amphibians, and reptiles); temperature of organism same as environment; must use the environment to cool down or warm up.
The system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide waste; Includes gills or lungs.
A respiratory structure in fish and other aquatic organisms that pulls oxygen out of the water and puts it into the blood and removes waste carbon dioxide from the blood and puts it into the water.
Adult amphibians and reptiles (as well as birds and mammals) have these; An organ that exchanges gases between the atmosphere and the blood (waste carbon dioxide out, oxygen into blood).
(aka cardiovascular system) This system works as the transportation highway for the body. It consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels. It transports substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the body.
A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body (2 chambers in fish and juvenile amphibians, 3 chambers in most reptiles and adult amphibians, 4 chambers in crocodillians, birds, mammals, and people).
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart (to lungs to add oxygen or to rest of body).
Blood that has passed through the lungs/gills and carries lots of oxygen (heart will pump it to body cells).
Microscopic vessel through which exchanges (of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients) take place between the blood and cells of the body.
Blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
Blood that contains little oxygen (has taken the oxygen to body cells and is returning to the heart and then lungs/gills to get more oxygen).
central nervous system
The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord (center of body); handles majority of information processing.
peripheral nervous system
The part of the nervous system consisting of sensory receptors, sensory organs, and the nerves that connect to the central nervous system.
Body system that breaks down food into simpler forms through both chemical or mechanical digestion and absorption of nutrients.
Actual path that food goes through the body (mouth to esophagus to stomach to small intestine to large intestine to anus).
A sac-like portion of the digestive tract that performs mechanical and chemical digestion to break down food.
The long, tubular organ (small diameter) below the stomach in which most of the digestion and absorption of food occurs.
The tubular organ (large diameter) from the end of the small intestine to the anus and absorbs water and minerals into the body.
The organ that produces bile to aid in digestion (extra bile stored in gall bladder and released into small intestine as needed), helps regulate substances in the blood, etc.
An organ that produces digestive enzymes and bicarbonate (to neutralize stomach acid), which are delivered to the small intestine. It also secretes insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.
Common opening for two or more systems (digestive, urinary, and reproductive) in many vertebrates.
An organism that eats plants only (tends to have longer intestines for digestion).
An organism that eats other animals (tends to have shorter intestines for digestion).
An organism that eats both plants and animals.
System that uses kidneys to filter and cleanse the blood, rid the body of wastes, and maintain salt and water balance; wastes collect in urinary bladder.
Why do vertebrates have similar body systems to humans?
We can see similar designs in people and animals because we have the same designer. God is a wise designer and knows what works well for digestion, respiration, etc.
An ectothermic vertebrate that lives in the water and has fins, lays eggs that are fertilized outside female's body (spawning): three types.
Fish with flexible skeletons made entirely of cartilage, jaws, scales, and paired fins--sharks, rays, skates, chimeras
Fish that have skeletons made of cartilage but lack a jaw, scales, and paired fins; often parasites and scavengers; ex. hagfish and lampreys
Largest group of fish that have skeletons made of bone, jaws, scales, swim bladders, and paired fins; ex. lion fish, trout, tuna, etc.
A vertebrate that lives part of its life on land and part of its life in water, thin moist skin that exchanges gases, lays eggs in water/moist places that are fertilized outside of female's body; undergoes metamorphosis--young have gills and adults have lungs, ex. frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, caecillians.
Method of reproduction in fish and most amphibians where a large number of female's eggs are fertilized outside of the body by male's sperm (usually in water).
A period of inactivity that some animals experience in winter that allows them to survive on stored body fat.
A period of reduced activity that some animals experience in the summer.
A membrane forming part of the organ of hearing, which vibrates in response to sound waves; found posterior to a frog's eye.
Ectothermic vertebrates that live on land, have dry scaly skin, lay leathery eggs that are fertilized inside female's body; ex. snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, turtles, tuataras, dinosaurs.
Reptile scales do not grow (fish scales do grow) so they have to shed their skin in this process.
Squamates; Carnivorous reptiles with streamlined bodies, no external ears, no eyelids and most only have one lung. Jaws detach and open wide to swallow their food whole. Tongues and an organ inside mouth are used for smelling. Few are venomous.
Squamates; Reptiles with long bodies and tails, movable eyelids, and usually four legs. Jaws can open wide to swallow food. Tongues and an organ inside mouth are used for smelling.
A reptile with four legs whose body is covered by a protective shell that includes the ribs and the backbone.
What are the three types of turtle?
Tortoise (land-dwelling); Terrapins (live on land and in water); Sea turtles (live in the ocean).
Reptiles with four legs and large jaws that live in the water, have four-chambered hearts, and care for their young: includes crocodiles, alligators, gaviels/gharials.
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