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65 terms

Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System Lab

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skeletal muscles
What cause movement?
prime movers
What are muscles that are primarily responsible for producing a particular movement called?
agonists
What is another name for prime movers?
antagonists
What are muscles that oppose or reverse a movement called?
relaxed
When a prime mover is active, the fibers of the antagonist are stretched, what state are they in when this occurs?
antagonist
What can also regulate the prime mover by providing some resistance, to prevent overshoot or to stop its action?
biceps muscle of the arm
What is an example of a prime mover of elbow flexion?
antagonists
what can be prime movers in their own right?
triceps muscle of the arm
What is an example of a prime mover of elbow extension?
Synergists
What aid the action of agonists by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movement?
they stabilize the joints
What do synergists do to joints?
fixation muscles
What are fixators also known as?
fixators
What are specialized synergists?
Fixators
What immobilize the origin of a prime mover so that all the tension is exerted at the insertion?
fixators
What are muscle that help maintain posture considered?
Direction of muscle fibers, relative size of the muscle, location of the muscle, number of origins, location of the muscle's origin and insertion, shape of the muscle, and the action of the muscle
What are the 7 criterias of naming muscles?
Origin
What usually tends to be the bone that does not move?
Insertion
What usually tends to be the moveable bone?
straight
What does the term rectus mean?
transverse and oblique
What two terms are used when the muscle fibers run at right angles and obliquely to the imaginary line?
rectus
A muscle with fibers (and fascicles) running parallel to that imaginary line will have what term?
largest
What does the term maximus mean?
smallest
What does the term minimus mean?
long
What does the term longus mean?
short
What does the term brevis mean?
the number of origins
When numbers are used to identify muscles (bi, tri, quad) what do the numbers represent?
head
What is another name for origin?
The origin
When naming the muscle in regards to the location of its origin and insertions which name comes first?
sternum
What does the term sterno stand for?
clavicle
What does the term cleido stand for?
triangle
What does the term deltoid mean?
a trapezoid
What does the trapezius muscle resemble?
away from the body
Which way does an abduction go?
closer to the body
Which way does an adduction go?
because they insert into the skin (or other muscles) rather than into bone
Why are the muscles of facial expression different from ost skeletal muscles?
muscles of mastication, and the six extrinsic eye muscles
What other muscles are found on the head besides the muscles of facial expression?
the muscles of mastication
What muscles manipulate the mandible during chewing?
The six extrinsic eye muscles
Which muscles aim the eyes?
within the orbit
Where are the six extrinsic eye muscles located?
frontal belly of the epicranius
What muscle is used to raise your eyebrow and wrinkle your forehead?
orbicularis oculi
What muscle is used to blink your eyes and wink?
Orbicularis oris
What muscle is used to close your lips and to pucker?
zygomaticus
What muscle is used to smile?
at the angle of the jaw
Where can the masseter be palpated?
temporalis
Which muscle is demonstrated when you place your hands on your temples and clench your teeth?
the head and the shoulder girdle
What are the neck muscles primarily concerned with the movement of?
The vertebral column, the ribs, the head, and the arms
What does the trunk musculature cause movement for?
the ribs, the head, and the arms
What does the anterior thorax muscles move?
Buccinator
What muscle has the molar region of maxilla and mandible as its origin?
Buccinator
What muscle has the orbicularis oris as its insertion?
Buccinator
What muscle draws the corner of the mouth laterall; compresses cheek (as in whistling); holds food between teeth during chewing?
Masseter
What muscle has the zygomatic arch and maxilla as its origin?
Masseter
What muscle has the angle and ramus of mandible as its insertion?
Masseter
What muscle is the prime mover of jaw closure; and elevates the mandible?
Platysma
What muscle has the fascia of the chest (over pectoral muscles) and deltoid as its origin?
Platysma
What muscle has the lower margin of the mandible, the skin, and the muscle at the corner of the mouth as its insertion?
Platysma
What muscle tenses the skin of the neck; depresses the mandible; pulls the lower lip back and down (i.e., produces downward sag of the mouth)?
Sternocleidomastoid
What muscle has the manubrium of the sternum and medial portion of the clavicle as its origin?
Sternocleidomastoid
What muscle has the mastoid process of the temporal bone and the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone as its insertion?
Sternocleidomastoid
What muscle has simultaneous contractions of both muscles of pair causes flexion of the neckforward, generally against ressistance (as when lying on the back); acting independently, rotate head toward shoulder on opposite side?
Sternohyoid
What muscle has the manubrium and medial end of the clavicle as its origin?
Sternohyoid
What muscle has the lower margin of the body of the hyoid bone as its insertion?
Sternohyoid and the sternothyroid
What muscles is acting with the sternothyroid and omohyoid depresses larynx and hyoid bone if mandible is fixed; may also flex skull?
Sternothyroid
What muscle has the posterior surface of the manubrium as its origin?
Sternothyroid
What muscle ahs the thyroid cartilage of the larynx as its insertion?