History Test Chapters 12 & 13
Terms in this set (81)
In what way were goods made in the early 1700s?
What was Eli Whitney's revolutionary idea?
To use interchangeable parts (mass production)
Why had Americans relied on foreign goods too much?
Foreign goods were cheaper
In what way did Richard Arkwright's machines make history?
They lowered costs and increased speed
What information did Samuel Slater bring with him to the United States?
How to build efficient cloth machines
What was the period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production?
The efficient production of large numbers of identical goods is called what?
Pieces that are exactly the same are called what?
Who invented the water frame?
Who was the British mechanic who knew how to build new textile machines?
Tools used to produce items or do work are called what?
In what industry was the first important breakthrough?
Most textile mills were located in what region of the United States?
The Industrial Revolution first began in what country?
What event helped American manufacturing become less dependent on foreign goods?
War of 1812
How much did child workers earn in factories?
1/7 of adult pay
What is an advantage of the Lowell system?
What is a disadvantage of the Lowell system?
Why did worker's pay decrease in the 1830s?
More people wanted jobs
What did workers try to achieve in the mid 1800s?
10 hour workdays
What was the Rhode Island System?
Slater's strategy of hiring families and dividing factory work into simple tasks
Who was Francis Cabot Lowell?
started the Lowell System in Massachusetts
What was the Lowell System?
Lowell's strategy of hiring young not married women spinning a mill
What were trade unions?
groups that tried to improve pay and working conditions
What were strikes?
When the employees rebelled
Who was Sarah G. Bagley?
She fought to shorten work days in the Lowell System
Why did information begin traveling at higher speeds?
There were new, faster ways of transportation
How did the pace of American life increase?
Steamboat and Railroads
How did steamboats affect shipping?
It became cheaper and easier
Why did travelers put up with the dangers of railroad travel?
They wanted to go places faster
What helped the steel industry?
the Railroad industry
What was the Clermont?
Who created the Clermont?
What was Gibbons v. Ogden?
A case about federal shipping laws
Who built the Tom Thumb?
What was the Tom Thumb?
What was the Transportation Revolution?
rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel
During the Transportation, what replaced wood as the main source of power?
What city was an important hub for transportation in the United States?
What is used to make the rails that trains ride on?
What is deforestation?
cutting down trees
What was the invention of the telegraph based on?
The work of two other scientists
Did everyone accept the telegraph's power at first?
Why did telegraph messages become so widely used?
They were an easy way to relay messages across long distances
Why could newer factories be built almost anywhere?
Steam engines allowed factories to not be built near rivers
Why did the PURCHASE of many household items increase?
Who developed the mechanical reaper?
Who improved and marketed the sewing machine?
Who developed Morse Code?
Alfred Lewis Vail
Who perfected the telegraph?
Who invented the sewing machine?
Who designed a steel plow?
What device could send information over wires across great distances?
What were folktales?
Stories with a moral
What were spirituals?
Songs that combined music and religious beliefs
Who was Nat Turner?
A slave who led a revolt in 1831
How could skilled slaves buy their freedom?
They were rented out and allowed to keep their earnings
What could happen to families at slave auctions?
They could be split up
How were laws used to control slaves?
Slave Codes limited what they could do (Read and Write)
How did slaves keep their culture alive?
They told stories and sang spirituals
When was Nat Turner's Rebellion?
What were yeomen?
Owners of small farms
How was a yeoman different from a planter?
Yeoman only had a few slaves
Why was religion central to southern life?
In what way were southern cities like northern cities?
Services were provided (Water & street maintenance)
How many free africans lived in the south?
Who were the wealthiest members of southern society?
What were most white southerners? (Planters or Yeomen)
Who did most of the work in most southern cities?
Free African Americans in the south often worked as what?
What did wealthy white southerners use to justify their position in society and slavery?
What was the cotton gin?
A machine that separated cotton from the seeds
What were planters?
Large-scale farmers who owned more than 20 slaves
What was the cotton belt?
The region that grew most of the country's cotton crop
What were factors?
Crop brokers who arranged transportation of goods
What was Tredegar Iron Works?
The only large southern factory that made iron products (in it's day)
Why was it difficult to harvest cotton before the cotton gin?
It was hard to separate seeds
What were the advantages of cotton?
It could be stored for a long time and transported cheap
Why were rivers so important to southern farmers?
Cotton was shipped on rivers
What is scientific agriculture?
The use of scientific methods to improve farming
Where did the cotton belt stretch from?
South Carolina to Texas