BJU Science 6, Human body systems and Chapter 14
Terms in this set (60)
Why do animals have similar body systems to humans?
We can see similar designs in people and animals because we have the same designer. God is a wise designer and knows what works well for digestion, respiration, etc.
The system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide waste; nostril, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli (in lungs).
The muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen in humans (and mammals) and that helps with breathing.
(aka cardiovascular system) This system consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels and transports substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the body.
A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body (4 chambers in humans).
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart (to lungs to add oxygen or to rest of body).
Microscopic vessel through which exchanges (of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients) take place between the blood and cells of the body.
Blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart (have valves to keep blood from moving backwards).
Body system that breaks down food into simpler forms through both chemical or mechanical digestion and absorption of nutrients.
Actual path that food goes through the body (mouth to esophagus to stomach to small intestive to large intestine to anus).
The long, tubular organ (small diameter) below the stomach in which most of the digestion and absorption of food into the blood occurs.
The tubular organ (large diameter) from the end of the small intestine to the anus -- absorbs water and minerals into the body.
The organ that produces bile to aid in digestion (extra bile stored in gall bladder and released into small intestine as needed), helps regulate substances in the blood, etc.
An organ that produces digestive enzymes and bicarbonate (to neutralize stomach acid), which are delivered to the small intestine. It also secretes insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.
Nerve cells which get messages/electrical signals through dendrites from sensory organs or from other nerves and send messages through axons to other nerves or the brain.
A special protective cover for the axon that helps to insulate it and allows the message to be sent faster.
The little gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron; point at which a chemical signal (neurotransmitter) passes from one neuron to another.
Neurons carrying messages to the muscles.
Neurons carrying messages to the brain from sensory organs.
central nervous system (CNS)
Composed of the brain and the spinal cord. This is the part of the nervous system that does most of the information processing.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Everything in the nervous system besides the brain and spinal cord; Contains all the neurons involved in receiving information and sending it on to the spinal cord and brain. Includes the autonomic and somatic nervous systems.
The command center of the whole body; made of cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, etc.
"Little brain;" controls the speed and force of movements and is located under the cerebrum.
Connects the brain to the spinal cord and controls the more basic, involuntary functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, heartbeat, and balance.
The largest part of the brain, divided into right and left hemispheres and four lobes; deals with interpreting signals, learning, reasoning, and memory.
The front cerebrum lobe that controls conscious movements.
The cerebrum lobe toward the top of your head that interprets pain, touch, temperature, and taste.
The cerebrum lobe under your templesthat deals with hearing, speech, and memory.
The area inside the temporal lobe that is necessary for making long-term memories.
The cerebrum lobe at the back of the head just above your cerebellum that stores information about what a person sees.
Left side of the brain that controls the right side of the body. Right side of the brain that controls the left side of the body.
Also called the BACKBONE, made of individual bones called vertebrae - it protects your spinal cord.
The column of nerve fibers in your back that connect to the base of the brain -- protected by the vertebrae in your spinal column.
A movement that happens even before your brain has time to think about it (response sent through the spinal cord).
autonomic nervous system
Portion of peripheral nervous system; System of nerves which carries automatic instructions from the CNS to organs and muscles (Involuntary--breathing, heart rate, etc.)
Glands of the autonomic nervous system that increase the rate and strength of the heartbeat and raise the blood pressure to respond to stressful situations (sit on kidneys).
somatic nervous system
Portion of peripheral nervous system; system of nerves which carries instructions from the CNS to the skeletal muscles (voluntary control of movements).
Receptors in the nose that send messages to your brain so you can smell.
Structures on the tongue inside papillae (bumps on the tongue) that identify sweet, sour, bitter, and salty.
The eye's thin layer of clear tissue that allows light to enter the eye.
The part of the eye used to focus the image as light passes through it.
The back part of the eye on which an image rests after it passes through the other parts of the eye (changes the image into a photochemical message).
A thin sheet of tissue that vibrates in the ear and transfers vibrations to the bones of the inner ear.
hammer, anvil, stirrup
Inner ear bones (ossicles) that pass sound vibrations from the eardrum to the cochlea
Three fluid-filled canals in the inner ear responsible for our sense of balance.
Snail-shell shaped organ that transforms the vibration of the ear bones into an electrical signal and sends it on to the brain to be interpreted as sound.
epidermis and dermis
Layers of skin that contain sensory receptors, pores, etc.
The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that put hormones into the bloodstream to go to target cells and respond (controls growth, reproductive hormones, etc.).
These cells receive only a certain type of hormone and respond to it.
The master gland in the brain that regulates hormones.
A group of special cells near the base of the brain that regulates the pituitary gland.
A gland located in the neck that controls how your body uses food to make energy.
rapid eye movement (REM)
This stage occurs during sleep and is an important part of the brain organizing and sorting information and brain development (often dreams occur during this stage).
The ability to store and recall the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned.
The temporary storage of information.
The ability to remember/store information for months and years.
A disease that destroys brain cells which alters one's thinking processes and ultimately results in dementia (great forgetfulness).
A seizure disorder caused when the brain sends electrical impulses too quickly and irregularly.
An autoimmune disorder that destroys the myelin sheath that protects the nerve's axon resulting in a "short circuit" and uncontrollable muscle movements.
A disease of the central nervous system that causes damage to certain brain cells that control movement and causes a person's head, arms, and hands to tremble.
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