BJU Earth Science Chapters 19 and 20
Terms in this set (55)
The condition of earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place (mostly in troposphere, though also stratosphere).
The branch of science dealing with the atmosphere and weather.
Who has sovereignty over weather?
God alone determines the weather. People only try to predict the weather.
temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation
The five measurable properties meteorologists use to describe the weather and predict future weather.
The weight of atmospheric gases on the earth's surface; measured in units of force per unit of area (force exerted by the weight of the air).
Air in motion.
pressure gradients, the Coriolis effect, drag/friction
The three major factors determining wind speed and direction.
Similar to playing catch on a moving merry-go-round, this effect causes winds to curve as they travel across the Earth's surface (to the right in the Northern hemisphere and to the left in the Southern hemisphere).
The rate of change of atmospheric pressure with horizontal distance (always moves from high to low).
A low-pressure center toward which winds spiral counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
A high-pressure center from which winds spiral outward in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
trade wind, prevailing westerly, polar easterly
Reliable global winds.
Occur in places where the unequal heating of the earth's surface results in a daily or seasonal cycle of winds -- in the mountains, valleys, or over the ocean -- warm air rises and cooler air blows in (breeze/wind) to take it's place.
A collection of extremely tiny liquid water droplets or ice crystals in the atmosphere. These reflect some of the sun's radiation keeping the earth cooler and eventually produce precipitation.
The amount of water vapor in the air.
A ratio of the amount of water the air is actually holding to the amount of water it could hold at that temperature (a percentage).
The temperature of a parcel of air at which the relative humidity is 100%. If the air parcel's temperature drops further, water vapor condensation will begin.
When the dew point is reached on the ground and water vapor in the air condenses to form water droplets on solid substances.
The process by which small droplets in the clouds join together and grow to form raindrops or hail.
A microscopic particle suspended in the air on which water easily condenses to form liquid water droplets.
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface. Includes rain, sleet, hail, or freezing rain.
When the dew point is reached on the ground below freezing temperature and the water vapor in the air is deposited (deposition) on solid substances as ice crystals.
A stratus cloud located on the ground.
thin straight layers or sheets (cloud)
piles or billows (cloud)
high, wispy curls (cloud)
less than 1 mile high (cloud)--low
one to four miles high (cloud)--medium
four to twelve miles high (cloud)--high
spans two or more altitude zones (cloud)
cloud is likely to bring precipitation
Clouds of liquid water droplets in the troposphere at temperatures far below the freezing point of water.
Super-cooled raindrops that form ice pellets as they fall and are up-drafted in the clouds to coalesce with falling super-cooled raindrops. This layers the ice pellets multiple times until they are too heavy and fall to earth.
Super-cooled cloud droplets that fall as rain and freeze when they hit the ground and surfaces below the freezing temperature of water.
Super-cooled raindrops that freeze solid as they fall and form ice pellets (no up-drafting or layers on these).
In cold, humid clouds, water vapor deposits as a solid on freezing nuclei forming tiny ice crystals that grow into unique patterns.
A microscopic particle suspended in the air on which water easily deposits to form ice crystals.
A mixture of snow, rain, sleet that falls to the ground.
A huge body of air in the troposphere with similar temperature and humidity throughout; named for the location in which it originates--ex. continental air mass originates over land.
The boundary where at least two different air masses meet.
The upward movement of air masses as they flow over mountains.
The lifting of a warm air mass above a cool air mass acting as a wedge.
The lifting of air when horizontal air currents from opposite directions collide and rise into the atmosphere.
A severe weather disturbance involving high winds, heavy precipitation, and other conditions, such as lightning or low temperatures.
A storm that brings heavy snow or sleet, high winds, and/or unusually cold weather.
A rainstorm that produces lightning and may include hail, bursts of strong winds, and even tornadoes; three stages include developing stage, mature stage, and dissipating stage.
An atmospheric electrical discharge of static electricity that occurs either between clouds or between a cloud and the ground.
A destructive, localized, rapidly rotating cyclonic windstorm forming a funnel; usually associated with a special cumulonimbus cloud called a supercell.
An immense cyclonic windstorm with winds over 119 km/hr that forms over a tropical or subtropical ocean; hazardous to ships at sea and extremely damaging if it moves over land.
A strong cyclonic storm with winds of at least 63 km/h. These can develop into hurricanes.
The low-pressure center of a hurricane containing relatively clear, calm, rising air (usually with light wind and low precipitation).
A higher than normal local sea level caused by seawater flowing toward the lower air pressure under a hurricane.
Why do bad things happen (storms) in the world?
Adam and Eve chose their own way instead of God's (sin) and now the world is cursed and evil happens. God is sovereign and allows bad things to happen but provides strength and hope even in the bad things. God uses His people to help others (warn about storms, etc.) and show love and grace to those enduring bad things.
A symbolic representation of data from a weather station on a weather map.
synoptic weather map
A weather map that presents a summary or synopsis of weather data for a given time frame.
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