How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

33 terms

Eukaryotic Cell Parts and Functions

STUDY
PLAY
cell
basic unit of life
tissue
group of cells that carries out a specific function
cytoplasm
region of eukaryotic cell outside the nucleus
chlorophyll
green pigment in chloroplasts; important in photosynthesis; cytoplasm of plant cells
plasma/cell membrane
regulates what enters and leaves a cell
ribosome
cytoplasm of plant and animal cells; site of protein synthesis
organelles
cell parts that carry out specific activities of a cell
eukaryote/eukaryotic
cells with membrane-bound nucleus
nucleus
region of eukaryotic cells that controls activities of cells; contains chromosomes (DNA) and nucleolus; filled with nucleoplasm
cytoskeleton
keeps cell from collapsing
plastids
structures in the cytoplasm of plant cells that contain pigments (chloroplasts, amyloplasts, chromoplasts)
phospholipid bilayer
term used to describe the molecular structure of the cell/plasma membrane; both plant and animal cells
centriole
found in the cytoplasm of animals cells; important in cell division; made of microtubles
organ
group of tissues performing a particular function
nucleolus
nucleus of both plant and animal cells; produces the nucleic acid RNA that forms the ribosomes
microtubules
cytoplasm of plant and animal cells; part of cytoskeleton that acts like a track for moving materials around in cells and are important in maintaining a cells' shape
chromosome
in the nucleus of both plant and animal cells; location of DNA (hereditary material)
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
extensive system of internal membranes in the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells for moving proteins and other substances through the cell
nucleoplasm
jelly-like liquid in the nucleus
Golgi apparatus
in the cytoplasm of both plant and animal cells; packages and distributes materials produced in the cell
lysosomes
in the cytoplasm of both plant and animal cells; vesicles that contain digestive enzymes for disposing of unwanted materials and structures
vesicles
containers, vessels for chemicals so they are not free in the cytoplasm of cells
mitochondria
organelles in the cytoplasm of both plant and animal cells that transfer energy from glucose to ATP; have their own DNA
chloroplasts
plastids that contain the green pigment chlorophyll; have their own DNA
central vacuole
structure in the cytoplasm of plant cells that stores water and may also contain enzymes and wastes
nuclear envelope/membrane
double membrane with pores that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
microfilaments
in the cytoplasm of both plant and animal cells; made of actin; part of cytoskeleton; important in cell movement (ex, white blood cells)
organ system
groups of organs performing related tasks (digestive, circulatory, skeletal, etc)
cell wall
rigid outer covering of plant cells for support and protection from injury and dehydration; surrounds the cell/plasma membrane
autophagy
A process in which lysosomes decompose damaged organelles to reuse their organic monomers
autolysis
digestion of cells or tissues by the cell's own enzymes
rough ER
ER dotted with ribosomes; produce protein for export (digestive enzymes, ex); abundant in most cells
smooth ER
ER that lacks ribosomes; produces hormones and chloesterol; detoxifies drugs and poisons in liver and kidney; contraction of heart