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The Respiratory System Study guide
Terms in this set (41)
Which organs are associated with the respiratory system?
Nose, Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
What are the functions of the external nose?
Modify Speech Vibrations
Warm, moisturize, and filter air as it enters the body before it reaches the lungs
What is the function of the internal nose?
Receives drainage from the paranasal sinuses
Which of those organs are considered part of the upper respiratory system?
Nose, paranasal sinuses, the pharynx, and the portion of the larynx above the vocal cords, and associated structures
Which are a part of the lower respiratory system?
Larynx, trachea, bronchi, and the lungs
Where is the nasopharynx located?
Superior region behind nasal cavity. Receives only air, helps equalize the pressure in the inner ear so that it is the top part of the nose
Where is the oropharynx located?
Middle region behind the mouth. Receives food and air and contains the pallet
Where is the laryngopharynx?
Inferior region attached to larynx. Connects digestive and respiratory system
What does the pharynx do?
Commonly called the throat.
Tube lined with mucous membrane. Serves as a resonating chamber, contains tonsils, and directs air inferiorly
What does the larynx do?
Connects the pharynx to the trachea, primary side of voice production. Lines the anterior to the esophagus, passes air from pharynx into the windpipe
What does the trachea do?
Connects air form the larynx into the bronchi and is lined with striated ciliated columnar epithelial cell
What is the purpose of the C-shaped rings of the trachea?
made of cartilage, allow esophagus to expand slightly into tracheal space, keep trachea open for passage of air
What is the function and structure of the primary bronchi?
Carry air toward each lung
Which of the bronchi is larger, right or left?
What is the name of the airway that enters each lobe of the lung?
Carries air to the lungs
Enters each lobe of the lung
Carries air to a segment of the lung
carries air directly to respiratory bronchial
How many lobes does each of the lungs have?
The right has 3 lobes and the left has 2 lobes
Where is the apex of the lung?
Near the clavicle (superior and posterior)
Base of lungs do not completely fill the pleura of the basis
What are the basic steps of gas exchange in the body?
Pulmonary ventilation - moving air into and out of the lungs (commonly called breathing)
External respiration - gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli
Oxygen is loaded into the blood
Respiration gas transport - transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via the bloodstream
Internal respiration - gas exchange between blood and tissue cells in system capillaries
When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, what conditions in the lungs does this cause?
Intraplural pressure increases
Intrapulmonary volume increases
Gas pressure decreases
Air flows into the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure equals atmospheric pressure
What are the inspiratory reserve volume or inspiratory capacity -
tidal volume plus the inspiratory reserve volume
expiratory reserve volume or expiratory capacity
amount of additional air beyond title that can be exhaled
residual volume or functional residual capacity
Residual volume plus the expiratory reserve volume (124ML)
tidal lung capacity
normally breathe in and out,
tidal volume (all air inhaled), expiratory reserve volume (all air exhaled) and whatever air is left that can be pushed out (6 Liter)
Amount of air trapped in lungs even when the intrapleural pressure is at atmospheric pressure
the amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled during one normal (quiet) breathing cycle
inspiratory reserve volume (or inspiratory capacity)
the additional amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation
expiratory reserve volume (or expiratory capacity)
the additional amount of air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation (the reserve amount that can be exhaled beyond what is normal)
residual volume (or functional residual capacity)
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation (after ERV)
vital capacity -
the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation. It is equal to the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume = TV + IRV + ERV.
tidal lung capacity
(There is total lung capacity = RV + VC.)
the amount of air in the lungs after they've collapsed.
How is CO2 transported in blood?
As dissolved carbon dioxide as carbamino compounds and as bicarbonate ions
How is the basic rhythm of quiet respiration net? Describe the inward forces of elastic recoil and explain why the lungs do not normally collapse during expiration.
By the inspiratory area of the medulla oblongata
Describe the inward forces of elastic recoil and explain why the lungs do not normally collapse during expiration.
Elastic recoil of the elastic fiber stretched during inspiration and the pull of the surface tension of the alveolar fluid. The intrapleural pressure is always subatmospheric during normal breathing which tends to pull the lungs outward and to keep alveolar pressure from equalizing with atmospheric pressure. The surfactant in alveolar fluid decreases the surface tension to help prevent collapse
Describe and explain the effects of smoking on the functioning of the respiratory system.
Nicotine constricts (make smaller) terminal bronchioles to increase airway resistance as does increase mucous secretion and swelling of the mucosa. Smoke exhibits the movement of the cilia allowing build up of substances and micros normally removed. Over time, destruction of elastic tissue which decreases elasticity and ultimately to the effects of emphysema
What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder?
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema
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