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Conditioning & Learning Exam # 5
Terms in this set (48)
The 3 genetic predispositions that affect learning according to Seligman
prepared learning, contra-prepared learning, and unprepared learning
biology or heredity facilitates the learning process. learning is swift and easy
an organisms biology works against the situation. learning is erratic if it occurs at all
biology neither helps nor hinders the learning of the behavior, learning occurs steadily- but not as quickly as prepared
how can the results from Garcia & Koelling be interpreted with prepared learning?
the internal consequence (becoming ill) became associated with the internal stimulus (taste & smell)
How can the results from Garcia & Koelling be interpreted with unprepared learning?
the external consequence (getting shocked) became associated with the external stimuli ( sigh and sound)
what is a fixed action pattern
inherited complex behaviors elicited by releasing stimuli.
3 defining aspects of fixed action patterns
1. all members of a species demonstrate the behavior 2. once a fixed action pattern begins, it continues until completion and 3. they are not due to learning
how is the egg retrieval behavior of the greylag goose an example of biologcally controlled Fixed-Action Pattern?
the egg retreival behavior is an example of a FAP due to its dependency on completion
what is the sign (or relasing) stimuli for the egg retreival behavior
the sign stimulus is the egg rolling away- which triggers the FAP of the goose going after it (rolling it with beek)
what behaviors show that the egg reterival behavior is responsive to environmental events
when a bigger, green speckled egg becomes the supernormal stimulus that the goose prefers over her own egg (e.g. not learned)
two types of communication used by honey bees
round dance- used when food is close
waggle dance-used when food is further away
what do the honey bee dances convey
direction and distance. distance is conveyed by the speed of the waggle... the faster- the closer the food... the slower the waggle- the further the food. direction is conveyed through relation of the sun- angle of the waggle relative to perpendicular
what is the RAM?
the radial arm maze is a contraption that stimulates a situation in which an animal forages for food (i.e. more naturalistic)
describe a RAM procedure that asses STM and LTM and describe how.
you can assess STM and LTM by "baiting" the subset of the arms. it measures STM because rats don't want to retrace their steps because in the wild thats a waste of time. and since rats dont want to go anywhere where there isnt food, this info gets stored in their LTM.
tendency for animals to return to biologically based behaviors following repeated reinforcement
sign tracking (autoshaping)
Brown & Jenkins autoshaped pigeons to peck a key. Stimuli associated with food becomes a signal for food and organisms will react to them.
species-specific defense reactions
freezing, attacking, flight. can compete with any learning situations. contra-prepared situations
Attempted to train a pigeon to avoid shock by pecking a response key. contra-prepared response.
key pecking for food is a ______ response
by product of intermittent schedules of reinforcement. occurs with FI schedules more commonly
4 aspects of adjunctive behavior
1. occurs immediately after reinforcement 2. affected by level of deprivation 3. can serve as reinforcers for other behaviors 4. operate during optimal IRI
anomalous tendency to drink excessively
Does the reinforcer need to be complementary of the adjunctive behavior?
activation component of behavioral output
seeking behaviors precede consummatory
biologically based behavior activation
focus on survival instincts/behaviors
study the role of behavior within the context of species specific behaviors
is imprinting species specific ?
a stimulus that is preferred over the actual releasing (typical) stimulus that is part of the animals biology
Emlen (1976, 1972)
studied avian migratory patterns (navigation) in indigo buntings. discovered indigo buntings are adept at reading the night sky by following or opposing the north star. this is innate.. known from birth
delayed matching to sample
animal matches comparison stimuli with a sample stimulus. as delay increases, memory decreases
delayed spatial alteration
animal alternates two responses between spatial locations. measure of short term memory
Maki & Hegvik (1980)
directed forgetting in pigeons. utility of using maintenance rehearsal is shown
new learning disrupts recall of old information
old learning interferes with learning new information
Kendrick & Rilling presented stimuli during the delay to introduce new information to the animal
Grant presented stimuli before the sample trial
Brodbeck and Shettleworth (1995)
black capped chickadee were more likely to remember where their food was stored based on spatial location
executive function refers to
higher order cognitive processes that organize and give order to our actions
executive function involves
frontal lobe of the brain, cognitive flexibility, ability to delay responding, ability to initiate responding
continuously picking previously correct responses.
total number of errors equals
overall rate of learning
perseverative responses measure ___
taste aversion conditioning differs from other types of conditioning in that associations are formed despite very long delays between the ____
CS and UCS
a common behavioral task in which a rat has to swim in a pool of water to find a hidden platform is called ____
morris water maze task
A "theory of mind" assumes that a person (or animal) is aware that others have thoughts/perspectives different from their own. based on an example from the textbook, how is this tested in chimpanzees?
the extent to which a non- dominant chimp retrieves food that is visible to them, but not visible to a dominant chimp
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